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Unveiling the Moon’s Secrets: Why the South Pole Holds the Key

   In the past, human lunar exploration activities mainly focused on detecting the surface facing the Earth. With the help of the “Queqiao” relay star, my country’s Chang’e-4 landed on the back of the moon for the first time and conducted scientific research on the back of the moon. However, human exploration of the moon The exploration of the two poles is basically at a blank stage.
  ”The detection of the lunar south pole is extremely risky, mainly due to the complex terrain of the lunar south pole, with boulders and huge craters. It is very difficult for a high-speed spacecraft to land smoothly in a designated area. If you are not careful, you will It is possible to miss the best landing area.” Li Yuqiang said. The terrain near the moon’s south pole is very rugged, and if there is a slight error, it may enter a permanent shadow area. Therefore, it is not easy to successfully land.
   Currently, the lunar exploration activities of China, the United States, Russia and India are all focused on the lunar south pole. Exploring areas not covered by previous exploration missions will help us understand the moon more comprehensively and provide basic guarantees for human development and utilization of lunar resources.
   According to the Russian Satellite News Agency, the original target landing site of the fallen “Moon-25” was in the lunar south pole. One of its main tasks was to confirm whether there was water in the lunar south pole. “Our first task is to search for water on the moon. We hope that this water can be preserved in the form of ice at the bottom of polar craters where the sun never shines, or at least find traces of water.” Russian scientist Esmont said.
  ”In addition to water ice resources, the moon’s south pole is located on the edge of a huge meteorite impact crater.” Dr. Huang Kai of the Yunnan Observatory told reporters. This crater has a diameter of 2,500 kilometers and a depth of 8,000 meters. It is one of the oldest landforms in the solar system and can provide important clues for exploring the early evolution of the solar system. At the same time, there is also a polar day phenomenon similar to that on the earth at the south pole of the moon. Long-term continuous illumination may occur during extreme daylight, which is more conducive to the detector’s long-term operation.
   If there is a large amount of water ice in the south pole of the moon, water may be obtained locally in the future to provide energy for the subsequent development and utilization of lunar resources. Water resources not only provide drinking water and oxygen, but can also be used as rocket fuel. Compared with launching rockets with a large amount of fuel from the Earth, which has a higher gravity, obtaining energy locally on the moon, which has a lower gravity, can effectively carry out space exploration for targets such as Mars and asteroids.
   The landable and usable area at the lunar south pole is limited. Therefore, countries need to ensure that water ice that can be used by future astronauts and spacecraft is discovered first, and the latest “space race” to explore lunar water ice has pointed to South Pole of the Moon.

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