Immunosuppressants grown in soil

  Natural medicine is a treasure trove left by nature to human beings, such as penicillin to save millions of people from infection, and artemisinin to fight malaria and won the Nobel Prize. Today, we are going to introduce the star of natural medicine – rapamycin.
|Discovery Process|

  Easter Island is a small island in the eastern South Pacific, about 3,000 kilometers from the nearest mainland, Chile. In 1964, the International Health Organization sent a scientific expedition team to Easter Island and found that the residents of the island raised horses for a living, and most of them did not wear shoes, but never suffered from tetanus. Dr. Segal, a member of the scientific expedition, collected several soil samples on the island for research, and found tetanus spores in only one sample.
  In 1972, Dr. Segal isolated rapamycin from bacterial metabolites in soil samples from Easter Island, and experimentally proved that rapamycin has a good antifungal effect. Dr. Segal named it: rapamycin (RPM, rapamycin). Among them, “rapa” comes from the name of Easter Island in the local language: “Rapa Nui”.
  In 1988, Segal’s team discovered that rapamycin has the effect of suppressing the immune system, and successfully developed oral rapamycin.
  In 1999, rapamycin was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for organ transplant rejection.
  In 2009, rapamycin was repackaged by Ruihui Pharmaceuticals as rapamycin (i.e., sirolimus). This medicine is used in patients undergoing kidney transplants to prevent organ rejection.
|Outstanding efficacy|
1. Suppresses the immune system

  Rapamycin, also known as sirolimus, is a cellular immunosuppressant. The immunosuppressive activity of rapamycin was superior to that of the other two drugs. It inhibits cell proliferation induced by growth factors or cytokines. Animal experiments have shown that rapamycin has unique curative effects on acute and chronic rejection, accelerated transplant rejection, and graft-versus-host disease. The drug can be clinically used for organ transplantation anti-rejection and the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
2. Inhibit tumor

  Rapamycin also has a good inhibitory effect on solid tumors. Its anti-cancer mechanism may be: rapamycin forms a complex after entering cells, undertakes multiple upstream proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, and regulates cells through different pathways growth and proliferation. At present, the antitumor effect of rapamycin on leukemia, liver cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, bladder cancer, etc. has entered the clinical trial stage.
3. Longevity “magic medicine”

  The specific mechanism of rapamycin prolonging lifespan may be related to that rapamycin can inhibit target protein activation, reduce stem cell consumption and increase tissue repair. At the same time, rapamycin can also slow down the incidence of age-related diseases, such as cancer, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and so on. Rapamycin improves body function and quality of life through different ways, thereby achieving the effect of prolonging life.
|The prospect is very broad|

  It took decades for rapamycin to be approved and recognized by countries all over the world, from small Easter Island to the world. However, rapamycin may also have certain adverse reactions: such as rapamycin as an immunosuppressant, it will increase the risk of infection and lead to increased insulin resistance. But as one of the most potential natural medicines, rapamycin has a very broad application prospect.