Not long ago, the “Economist Intelligence Unit”, a research institution under the British Economist Group, and the Italian private non-profit organization “Barilla” Food and Nutrition Research Center jointly conducted a survey on 34 countries, including G20 countries. They jointly released the “2017 Food Sustainability Index Rankings”. France, Japan and Germany are in the top three, China is 23rd and the UAE is at the bottom. How to deal with the three major problems of coexistence of hunger and obesity, over-exploitation of natural resources and food waste, people may find some clues from the assessment of the food sustainability index of various countries.
Comparing the Food Sustainability Index The Economist Intelligence Unit, a research institution under the
British Economist Group, and the Food and Nutrition Research Center, a non-profit organization in Italy, Barilla, jointly released the “2017 Food Sustainability Index” a few days ago. Sex Index Ranking”. On the basis of the first release in 2016, the index released 9 new countries, including 7 Mediterranean countries such as Greece and Jordan, as well as Hungary and Sweden, while the 25 countries released for the first time include G20 countries (the total GDP of which accounts for 70% of the world GDP). 85%, the combined population accounts for 2/3 of the world’s population) and Nigeria, Colombia, Ethiopia, the United Arab Emirates, Israel.
The index scores the food sustainability of 34 countries with 35 indicators in 8 categories, focusing on “food loss and waste”, “meeting nutritional challenges” and “agricultural sustainability”, with 0 being completely unsustainable and 100 being unsustainable Totally sustainable. In the 2017 food sustainability index rankings, France (74.79 points), Japan (72.83 points) and Germany (70.55 points) occupy the top three respectively, China (59.8 points) ranks 23rd, and the United Arab Emirates (40.33 points) points) at the bottom.
In 2015, the United Nations proposed 17 sustainable development goals, of which “food sustainability” is regarded as the key to achieving these goals. People may be inspired by the Food Sustainability Index to find some suitable ways to deal with the three major food and nutrition problems of hunger and obesity, overexploitation of natural resources and food waste.
France has the least food waste
About 1.3 billion tons of edible food is wasted in the world every year, equivalent to 1/3 of the world’s food production, enough to meet the food needs of nearly 800 million malnourished people in the world. The food production process will generate a large amount of greenhouse gases, consume water and soil resources, and wasting food is tantamount to harming the environment without producing any benefits. In the category of food loss and waste, France came out on top with a score of 84.89. The main reason is that the French government has actively implemented various policies to reduce food waste, which have achieved remarkable results. France wastes 1.8% of the food consumed in the country each year, with 106kg of food wasted per capita per year, less than one-third the level of waste in Australia.
The UAE, which has the highest per capita income of the 34 countries surveyed, is the most wasteful, wasting an average of nearly 1,000 kilograms of food per person each year.
France: The world’s first law to ban food waste
In 2012, the French government created a ministerial position for the management of the agricultural product system. After taking office, MP Quilaume Garrot led a two-year study and proposed 35 in 2015. A policy and measure proposal covering all aspects of the food sector. Marie Morad, a researcher at the Institute for Political Studies in Paris, believes the position has played a key role because past agriculture ministers were primarily concerned with agricultural production.
France plans to build a “food recycling system” covering enterprises and various institutions in 2025, with the focus on recycling edible food and anaerobic fermentation and composting of food waste.
On February 3, 2016, France passed a package of policies and laws to reduce food waste, including: Mandating that supermarkets must donate surplus edible food to charities and recycle inedible food.
Some foods are not allowed to have a shelf life
France also stipulates that no shelf life shall be set for vinegar, wine, salt, sugar, and baked goods, because these foods will not be harmful to the human body even if they are eaten for a long time; common sense in planting, cooking and food selection Introduce textbooks from elementary school to cultivate children’s good habits of reducing food waste from an early age; encourage farmers who donate their excess milk to tax deductions; create some public jobs at the community level to help reduce food waste. For public jobs, the country plans to recruit 1,000 young people, and most of the positions are currently full.
Garrett believes that reducing food waste, like traffic laws, can only make “roads” unobstructed if it is approved by the whole society. These policies of the French government have had a great social impact. At the Freegan Pony restaurant in Paris, chefs take turns cooking up delicious dishes from ingredients discarded from the wholesale market; at another restaurant, Simone Lemon, chefs turn ugly-looking ingredients A buffet was created to encourage people to reduce waste, and diners only pay by the weight of the food.
China’s “Operation CD-ROM” has a major impact on the
”food loss and waste” category after France, followed by Germany, Spain and Italy. Germany’s higher score is mainly due to “reducing waste to the final consumer”. The country plans to halve food waste by 2030. Spain scored highly on “Reducing Food Loss in Distribution and Transport” and Italy excelled in “Developing Policies to Reduce Food Loss”. China scored 69.96 in this project, ranking 15th, and has performed well in reducing food loss and reducing waste by final consumers. The nationwide “CD Action” that has been implemented since 2013 has left a deep impression on the evaluation experts. impression.
Multiple factors contribute to Japan’s high quality of life The
United Nations ’ 2017 annual report pointed out that the number of severely malnourished people in the world reached 815 million in 2016, an increase of 38 million over 2015 and the first increase in the past decade.
In the category of “meeting nutritional challenges”, Japan scored 72.99 points, topping the list; South Korea (68.76 points), Hungary (68.22 points) followed closely, and China ranked 29th with 52.13 points. Japan scored highly in the “quality of life” and “life expectancy” columns, with life expectancy at birth and healthy life expectancy reaching 84 and 74.9 years, respectively. Japan has “completely no population of vitamin A and iodine deficiency,” while in China, the proportion of the population with vitamin A and iodine deficiency is 9.3% and 15.7%, respectively, according to the World Health Organization. The Japanese have 100% access to clean water; the obesity rate of children aged 5 to 19 is only 14.2%, ranking fourth from the bottom of the 34 countries surveyed, and the country’s adult obesity rate is 27.2%, ranking the bottom. three. In addition, Japan’s Gini coefficient shows that its income inequality is not obvious, and nutrition education is included in classroom education, which are the reasons for Japan’s high score.
Hungarians have the highest physical activity scores.
South Korea main scoring items are the low rate of developmental disabilities (the incidence of developmental disabilities in children under the age of 5 is only 2.5%) and so on. 85.4% of Hungarians meet the weekly recommended time for physical activity, the highest percentage among 34 countries. Hungarians spend 2.4 hours a week in front of TV and computers, second only to Greece (2 hours) and Ethiopia (0 hours).
On the issue of addressing nutritional challenges, the phenomenon of “super-processed foods” high in fat, salt and sugar in developed countries is more prominent. In addition, “megacities” tend to exacerbate obesity problems. Traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and lack of public space greatly limit the opportunities for residents, especially children, to exercise and exercise. These factors are worth considering by urban designers.
Does breastfeeding help with diet control?
Reducing obesity requires good eating habits. Studies have shown that from conception to age 3 is a critical period for developing healthy eating habits. During this period, attention should be paid to ensuring the nutritional supply of the pregnant mother, and exclusive breastfeeding should be used as much as possible after the child is born. In addition to the rich nutrients and immune substances of breast milk, the process of the baby sucking the nipple forcefully has a great influence on the child’s ability to control the diet after adulthood. There are benefits that are not guaranteed with bottle feeding.
Avoiding meat for two days a week reduces carbon emissions
. Studies have shown that 20% to 30% of the EU’s adverse environmental impact is due to food production and consumption. Taking beef as an example, it takes an average of 15,000 liters of water to produce 1 kg of beef. In EU countries, a person who does not eat meat for two days a week can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 310 kilograms in a year.
”Mediterranean diet” is healthy and environmentally friendly
. Interestingly , the dietary guidance “Food and Environment Double Pyramid” provided by Barilla Food and Nutrition Research Center scientifically reflects two aspects that are extremely closely related to food: relatively low impact on the environment Small foods tend to have higher nutritional value. Conversely, foods that have a greater impact on the environment have relatively low nutritional value and need to be controlled and eaten with caution. The well-known “Mediterranean diet” uses olive oil as the main edible oil, rich in plant foods, and the food is low in processing and high in freshness, and mainly eats seasonal and locally produced foods. Healthier than a Western meat-based diet. Studies have shown that after considering factors such as greenhouse gas emissions, soil and water consumption, and using the full life cycle assessment method, it is found that the environmental impact of the former is about 60% less than that of the latter.
Grain growth mainly does not depend on increasing arable land
In the category of “agricultural sustainability”, Italy ranked first with 72.96 points, followed by South Korea (71.71 points) and France (71.50 points), and China ranked 30th with 57.32 points.
Italy scored highly on both the “Impact of Agriculture on Water” and “Impact of Agriculture on Air”, promoting the use of new technologies to reduce water waste, which is effective. As the largest seafood consumer in the euro area, the country is constantly updating its laws to keep marine fisheries sustainable. South Korea’s main points are to maintain the diversity of crops. France ranks high due to the high average education level of farmers and the high investment in agricultural technology research and development (2.7% of GDP).
Research shows that from 1961 to 2005, about 77% of the increase in world grain production was contributed by the increase in yield per unit, while the expansion of arable land contributed only 14% of the increase, which shows the importance of science and technology to agriculture. The world population is expected to reach 8.1 billion in 2025. How to ensure food supply poses a huge challenge to agriculture. “Precision agriculture”, which is characterized by the extensive use of high-tech technologies such as GPS positioning, remote sensors, satellite imaging and big data technology, has seen a large number of successful cases in developed countries. Under the premise, the amount of fertilizer is reduced by 10% to 15%. With the rapid development of science and technology, precision agriculture has also added new methods such as biosynthesis and soilless cultivation.