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Eyes that opened instantly

  On November 17, 2010, CERN produced and briefly captured “antimatter” atoms through the Large Hadron Collider, and successfully made 38 of the thousands of antihydrogen atoms produced. existed for about 0.17 seconds. This time is short-lived in the eyes of ordinary people, but for scientists, it is enough for them to conduct more in-depth observations and research.
  In the early morning of June 30, 1908, in the forest of the Tunguska region of Siberia, Russia, a loud noise was deafening, a huge mushroom cloud rose into the sky, a strong white light appeared in the sky, the temperature rose instantly, the people were scorching hot, the vegetation was scorched, and the nearby residents were terrified. . This explosion affected many countries. People in Western European countries saw day-like flashes in the night sky. Many incandescent lamps in London, England suddenly went out. The United States, far across the ocean, also felt the tremor of the earth…
  It is estimated that, The explosion was equivalent to the power of 1,000 atomic bombs, and towns and forests within hundreds of square kilometers were destroyed in the explosion. What is the “secret weapon” that makes the Tunguska explosion so powerful? This has once become a “mystery of the century” in the scientific community, which has puzzled the scientific community and has different opinions.
  It was not until 1986, after the breakthrough in “antimatter” research in the scientific community, that scholars put forward the more credible view that the Big Bang might be caused by “antimatter”. So where exactly is “antimatter”, and how magical is it? Scientists are constantly exploring, trying to uncover the mystery of “antimatter”. So, does “antimatter” really exist? Can people recognize “antimatter”? The answer should be yes.
  
  What is antimatter?
  
  The natural world has a myriad of shapes and colors: towering buildings, vast fields, gurgling water, mysterious stars… They constitute all things in the universe. Although they have different shapes, they are all made of matter. Protons, neutrons and electrons are the fundamental particles that make up the complex world of matter. As scientists delved into the realm of elementary particles to get to the bottom of it, a new kind of matter loomed before their eyes. This is “antimatter.”
  Just like protons, neutrons, and electrons combine to form atoms (see image on the right: structural diagram of a carbon atom), antiprotons, antineutrons, and antielectrons combine to form antiatoms. Matter made of antiatoms is “antimatter”.
  ”Antimatter” is actually the same as ordinary matter. The difference is that the particles that make up “antimatter” are opposite in terms of electric charge, etc., to the particles that make up ordinary matter. For example, the mass of the proton is 1 unit, the charge is +1 unit, the mass of the antiproton is 1 unit, and the charge is -1 unit: another example, the mass of the electron is the same as the mass of the anti-electron, but the charge of the electron is 1 unit, and The anti-electron charge is +1 unit, so some people call the anti-electron “positron”.
  Scientists speculate that antiprotons and antineutrons combine to form negatively charged antinuclei, and antinucleus and antielectrons combine to form antiatoms. There are as many kinds of atoms in the material world as there are in the “antimatter” world. Extending from this, the universe also has its corresponding anti-universe. In the anti-universe, there are anti-galaxies, anti-stars, anti-earth, anti-house, anti-food, anti-clothing, and it has been “anti” until it is anti-elementary particles.
  But the strange thing is that once “antimatter” contacts with “positive matter” in the real world, it will explode in an instant. At the same time, matter and “antimatter” also become photons or muons, releasing huge energy and producing ” annihilation” phenomenon. Although the current theory holds that when the universe was born from the big bang, equal amounts of matter and “antimatter” were produced at the same time, but now that the universe has existed for 15 billion years, it is difficult for scientists to find “antimatter” in the universe. Finding and studying “antimatter” has thus become a hot and difficult point in the field of physics research.
  
  The discovery process
  
  of “antimatter” The concept of “antimatter” was first proposed by British physicist Paul Dirac. He predicted in the 1930s that every particle should have an opposite antiparticle, such as an antielectron, which has exactly the same mass as an electron but carries the opposite electric charge. He later won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933 for his theory.
  In 1932, American scientist Anderson discovered a special particle whose mass and charge are the same as electrons, except that it is positively charged, while the electrons are negatively charged. The discovery of the positron has caused shock and sensation in the scientific community, but a new question has arisen – is the discovery of the positron accidental or universal? If it is universal, do other particles have Antiparticles?
  So, scientists have added another target to their research into the microscopic world. In 1955, in laboratories in the United States, antiprotons were first discovered, and later, antineutrons were discovered. In the 1960s, almost all of the antiparticles among the elementary particles were found by scientists. A world of “antimatter” is gradually being “excavated” by scientists like archaeology. In general, the progress of “antimatter” research is slightly slow, because the cost is too expensive. Using particle accelerators to produce one hundred billionth of a gram of “antimatter” costs nearly $6 billion! And “antimatter” is extremely unstable. , it can turn to ashes any matter it comes in contact with – … not even air.
  In 1995, CERN produced nine antihydrogen atoms for the first time. But the antihydrogen atom created in the laboratory is fleeting, and scientists have no way to study its true colors. Until November 17, 2010, CERN created and briefly captured “antimatter” atoms through the Large Hadron Collider. Among the thousands of antihydrogen atoms produced, they successfully made the 38 existed for about 0.17 seconds. This time seems to ordinary people to take a moment, but for scientists, it is enough for them to conduct more in-depth observations and research. The scientific community rejoiced, believing that this was a breakthrough in the field of physics and that it was “one step closer” to the “truth” of “antimatter”.
  Although the “antimatter” theory is only a scientific hypothesis and needs to be further confirmed, “negative matter” such as antiparticles does exist. Antimatter”. It is believed that with the continuous development of science and technology and the deepening of scientific research, people’s understanding of the role of “antimatter” will definitely become more and more profound.
  
  Applications of Antimatter: Angels or Trolls
  
  ”Antimatter” is the most powerful energy source known to mankind. “Antimatter” does not cause pollution and does not produce radiation. This will be a new energy revolution that can fundamentally change the energy supply model. It releases energy at 100% efficiency, compared to 1.5% efficiency for the mighty nuclear fission. A small drop of “antimatter” could keep the whole of New York City functioning throughout the day. One gram of “antimatter” can release the energy equivalent of more than 40 million tons of TNT explosive, enough to power 23 space shuttles – 2,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped by the United States on Hiroshima, Japan. Compared to this complete release of energy, nuclear fission is as trivial as striking a match. To give the simplest example, if you want to send humans to Mars, you need more than 10 million tons of chemical raw materials, but if you use “antimatter” as fuel, only tens of milligrams are needed, and the time is greatly shortened. In many science fiction novels, the protagonist can travel in the distant universe because the spacecraft uses “antimatter” fuel.
  At present, scientists have been trying to create “antimatter” weapons that use “antimatter” as energy, propellant or explosives. It may have the following characteristics: one of the following characteristics: it has great power, but the accompanying killing effect is small, and it does not produce nuclear radiation. That is to say, it has the explosive power of a hydrogen bomb, but does not cause nuclear pollution. It is a kind of “clean hydrogen bomb”. “Secondly, “antimatter” bombs are easy to detonate and do not require a high ignition temperature like atomic bombs. They do not need to reach a critical mass to explode, but can also explode at a particularly small mass. Thirdly, the means of killing and the target of destruction are more for single. Only the shock waves, electromagnetic pulses or other killing and destructive factors generated by the explosion can be used to attack specific targets.
  Of course, since the mystery of “antimatter” itself has not been fully solved, it will take a long time to put “antimatter” weapons into the battlefield. At present, “antimatter” weapons only exist in science fiction, such as according to “Da Vinci” In the film of the same name adapted from the companion piece “Angels and Demons”, the “antimatter” bomb hidden in Rome constitutes the main line of the film. Nonetheless, the Air Force has taken a keen interest in its possible military uses, including destructive effects, and since the Cold War has funded physics research related to “antimatter.”
  It is often difficult to gauge the application prospects of major scientific breakthroughs. More than 100 years ago, Thomson, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906 for his discovery of electrons, never imagined that his discovery would now be applied to televisions, mobile phones, and computers that are closely related to people’s daily lives. When scientists invented lasers in the 1960s, they never imagined that lasers could be applied to barcodes on store goods, anti-counterfeiting marks on ID cards, etc.
  Regarding the usefulness of new things in science, there is such an allusion. A lady once asked Faraday, the discoverer of electricity: “What is the use of electricity?” Faraday asked ingeniously: “What is the use of a newborn baby?” Perhaps In the near future, “antimatter” will have a wider range of uses and bring us more surprises. However, there is still a long way to go before mankind can completely unravel the mystery of “antimatter” in the universe.

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