Before delving into the intricacies of cryonics, let us first contemplate its precursor: hibernation. The North American black bear adeptly moderates its heart rate from 55 beats per minute to a mere 9 beats per minute during hibernation. Remarkably, a span of half a year spent in hibernation merely ages the bear by approximately one month. Examination of the hibernation phenomenon unveils tantalizing prospects for human adaptation. Nonetheless, while the prospect of protracted hibernation tantalizes, its practical application remains circumscribed. Hibernation, after all, merely decelerates the flow of life rather than halting it altogether.
At the heart of cryonics lies its principle: freezing.
To traverse the temporal expanse into the future, one must embrace the realm of genuine cryonics technology. By estimations, subjecting the human body to temperatures plummeting to minus 196 degrees Celsius results in an aging process slowed to a glacial pace—24 million years for every second elapsed under normative conditions. However, the domain of cryonics presents challenges far more daunting than those encountered in human hibernation. Foremost among these challenges is the conundrum of organ preservation. One proposed solution involves the rapid freezing of organs, circumventing the deleterious effects of hypoxia. Consider, for instance, the instantaneous preservation of a fish through immersion in liquid nitrogen, only to be seamlessly restored to vitality upon reintroduction to its aquatic milieu—an eloquent demonstration of the efficacy of rapid freezing technology.
Yet, beyond the specter of organ hypoxia, cryonics confronts another formidable obstacle: the menace of ice crystals. These crystalline formations, spawned during the process of freezing, burgeon within the body, imperiling cellular integrity until breaching the delicate confines of the cell membrane. This pernicious propensity accounts for the diminished freshness of meats consigned to domestic refrigeration. Contrastingly, in the rapid freezing of fish via liquid nitrogen, the precipitous drop in temperature forestalls not only organ distress but also impedes the crystallization of bodily fluids. Entranced in a vitrified stasis, the fluid remains impervious to the ravages of freezing, preserving the internal milieu of the fish unscathed.
While fish subjected to liquid nitrogen-induced freezing may endure, their longevity remains curtailed. A pivotal factor contributing to their transient survival is the inevitability of traversing the temperature threshold conducive to ice crystal proliferation upon thawing, thereby imperiling cellular viability. Though tolerable in the context of food preservation, such marginal ice crystal damage renders this method unsuitable for the preservation of living organisms.
Upon breaching the freezing point, the wood frog embarks on a chilling transformation: within a mere 10 minutes, its dermal surface succumbs to the icy embrace; within 3 hours, its circulatory conduits congeal, arresting the rhythmic pulsations of heart and mind; within 24 hours, a staggering 65% of its corporeal form lies ensnared in frost’s icy grip. Externally, the wood frog assumes the visage of a sculpted effigy, yet within lies the dormant ember of life, poised to reignite upon the advent of warmer climes.
The phenomenon of freezing precipitates a cascade of cellular events. As liquids of lesser concentration succumb to crystallization, interstitial fluids undergo osmotic depletion, exacerbating the intracellular dehydration that culminates in the corporeal breach. Yet, amidst this frigid tableau, nature bequeaths a singular marvel: the Alaskan wood frog.
Unlike its torpid brethren, the wood frog, native to the frost-bound reaches of Alaska, wields the power to self-induce a state of suspended animation. In defiance of subzero temperatures, it endures an eight-month hiatus devoid of respiration or pulsation, only to be roused with the vernal thaw.
How does the wood frog circumvent the perils of freezing? Its stratagem lies in the precise orchestration of ice crystal formation. Internally, vital organs are clustered at the core, enabling the frog to regulate the ingress of frost’s icy tendrils. Anticipating the onset of winter’s chill, the frog undertakes a twofold preparation: mobilizing stored hepatic glycogen into glucose and synthesizing urea in prodigious quantities. These maneuvers serve to elevate bodily fluid concentrations, thereby depressing the freezing point. Moreover, the frog synthesizes freeze-responsive proteins, which ensnare nascent ice crystals, forestalling their unrestrained growth. Thus fortified, the frog endures a four-hour freeze, during which approximately 70% of its bodily fluids congeal, enshrouding its vital organs in a crystalline cocoon.
In this state of suspended animation, the wood frog is bereft of heartbeat or respiration—a mere simulacrum of life. Yet within its icy confines, a vital metamorphosis unfolds. As winter’s grip tightens, glucose concentrations surge fifty- to eightyfold, while urea levels soar tenfold, heralding an era of hyperglycemia and uremia. To confront this metabolic exigency, the wood frog possesses a formidable hepatic apparatus, comprising 22% of its total mass—a veritable bulwark against the ravages of toxicity. This natural phenomenon has not escaped the notice of humanity; indeed, it serves as a testament to the efficacy of fluid concentration manipulation in mitigating ice crystal formation.
In the realm of contemporary cryonics, a mere quartet of institutions holds sway: the Alcor Life Extension Foundation and the Cryonics Research Institute in the United States, the Krioros Cryonics Company in Russia, and the Shandong Yinfeng Institute of Human Sciences in China. Despite their geographical dispersion, these institutions espouse similar methodologies, underscoring the nascent nature of the field. Under what circumstances can cryonic intervention be administered? The answer lies in the realm of postmortem preservation, rendering the endeavors of these institutions less akin to resurrection than to the preservation of mortal remains.
Yet, amidst the cloak of skepticism, the possibility of resurrection looms tantalizingly on the horizon. Historical anecdotes abound of individuals restored from the icy embrace of death. In the winter of 1980, a nineteen-year-old maiden, stranded in the frigid wastes at minus 20 degrees Celsius, was discovered frozen in her tracks. Though bereft of respiration and pulse, she defied the grim pronouncements of medical experts, reviving to reclaim her place among the living—an extraordinary testament to the indomitability of the human spirit.
Such tales are not confined to the annals of history. In 1999, a Norwegian physician named Anna met with misfortune on a skiing expedition, plunging into the icy depths of a frigid stream. Found in a state of suspended animation, with a body temperature barely surpassing 13.7 degrees Celsius, her vital signs eclipsed, Anna faced a harrowing ordeal. Yet, through the valiant efforts of rescuers, her body temperature slowly ascended, resuscitating her from the brink of oblivion. This miraculous revival, documented in the venerable medical journal The Lancet, serves as a beacon of hope amidst the enigmatic terrain of cryonics. Yet, for all its promise, the path to resurrection remains fraught with uncertainty, shrouded in the mists of conjecture and speculation.
This comprehension is facile. Indeed, when institutions engage in cryonics, the individual is already in a state of clinical death, and the challenge of revival differs from that of cryonics. Concretely, there persist several pivotal quandaries in establishing the bridge from cryogenic suspension to resurrection of the human form. The foremost obstacle lies in ensuring the seamless progression of the entire cryogenic process, for any flaw in the chain may precipitate irrevocable demise.
Furthermore, cooling presents a lesser challenge than heating. Analogous to the flash-freezing of fish with liquid nitrogen previously mentioned, in the context of human physiology, how do we regulate the pace of temperature ascent? Additionally, how can we substitute antifreeze with bodily fluids? In what sequence should organs be reanimated to functionality? Failure to address any of these dilemmas may effectively terminate the individual who could have otherwise remained in suspended animation. Thus, the endeavor of resurrection proves exceedingly arduous, and the pursuit of research therein is fraught with difficulty.
Lastly, let us revisit the foundational stages of cryonics. Upon demise, institutions employ machinery to sustain cerebral activity. Is it conceivable, then, to freeze solely the brain? In actuality, numerous individuals opt to exclusively preserve their brains. The preservation of solely the brain entails considerably less expense. Taking Alcor in the United States as an illustration, the cost of whole-body cryopreservation amounts to US$200,000, whereas preserving only the brain incurs a cost of US$80,000. Nevertheless, it becomes evident that our current technological prowess is markedly inadequate for the prospective resurrection of an individual based solely on cerebral preservation.
It is undeniable that contemporary cryonics technology is sufficiently advanced. However, in juxtaposition, resurrection technology is scarcely in its infancy. Apart from technological impediments, legal and ethical considerations further complicate matters. Presently, the agreements of several institutions essentially stipulate that “the institution reserves the prerogative to determine, in good faith, the disposition of cryogenically preserved human remains, absolving itself of any ensuing liabilities.” Such a provision is not unwarranted, given our limited comprehension of future resurrections and the trajectory of technological advancement. Consequently, we are constrained to abide by such a noble pact.
·The Saga of Cryogenically Preserved Human Bodies·
The inaugural instance of cryogenically preserving a human body transpired in 1967. At that juncture, physicist and psychologist Bedford, afflicted with cancer, elected to undergo cryonic preservation. Alas, the cryonic technology of the era remained nascent. The cryonic team arrived one hour subsequent to his demise. Following the infusion of antifreeze, Bedford’s remains were not immediately transferred to the cryogenic chamber. Instead, he was interred therein a fortnight later, owing to the recent completion of the cryochamber’s construction. It stands to reason that despite his subsequent immersion in liquid nitrogen, the prospect of his resurrection was, in essence, a chimera. Even in the best-case scenario, the process of cryopreservation would necessitate several decades. Should any unforeseen mishap occur during this protracted interval, resulting in an unexpected rise in cryochamber temperature, the cryogenically preserved individual would be consigned to an eternal slumber. Yet, who can vouchsafe the flawless operation of the entire system for decades or even centuries?
Hibernation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the realm of nature. In response to frigid temperatures and scarcity of sustenance during winter, certain creatures opt for hibernation, entering a state of dormancy until the advent of spring. In essence, all mammals experience approximately one billion heartbeats throughout their lifespan. Species with diminished heart rates tend to exhibit prolonged lifespans. Thus, when an animal’s cardiac rhythm decelerates during hibernation, it effectively presses the pause button on its own existence.