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Are men more spatially intelligent?

  Spatial intelligence mainly refers to the ability to feel, distinguish, remember, change the spatial relationship of objects and thereby express thoughts and emotions.
  Spatial intelligence includes different sub-ability, here are two core competencies:
  1. Mental rotation, that is, showing what a complex object looks like in two different states, it is necessary to determine whether two patterns belong to the same object.
  2. Spatial imagination, that is, to present the state of a figure in a complex image.
  Spatial competence is important for a number of occupations: occupations related to mathematics/physics; occupations related to technology and engineering (mechanical engineer, auto mechanic, carpenter, mason, architect); related to the arts, mainly plastic arts Related occupations (architects mentioned above also need to combine spatial ability with plastic arts); specific medical occupations (such as surgeons, dentists, physicians related to endoscopy, colonoscopy, etc.); pilot.
  If, in your mind, these occupations are predominantly male-dominated, your impression is not entirely wrong. In fact, the greatest gender differences were revealed in spatial ability tests. Men are mainly better in mental rotation, but in terms of spatial imagination, the gender difference is very small. Individual scientists have not found any female advantage in this regard and have attempted to explain this gender difference in psychological rotation in terms of “evolutionary heritage”: around 100,000 years ago, males were primarily hunters, while females were collector. In order to be successful in the hunt, to gain favor with women, and to be successful in raising and rearing offspring, a man must be a successful hunter. And hunting activities can promote the development of mental rotation ability.
  This ability is helpful when hunters have to travel miles away from home to hunt. In addition, the ability to shoot and use bows and arrows is also improved through the ability to rotate mentally. Proponents of this view argue that this is why, over tens of millions of years, men who have been tested by natural selection have had good spatial abilities, especially in terms of mental rotation.
  And this hunter-gatherer hypothesis is controversial for a number of reasons: geneticists question whether 100,000 years is long enough to achieve such a selection effect from a Darwinian point of view of evolution; Anthropologists have criticized the 100,000-year assumption. Since it is safe to say that hunter-gatherer culture only started about 40,000 years ago, the evidence for the existence of hunter-gatherer culture 100,000 years ago is only circumstantial.
  If this sex difference is really evolutionary, the difference must be very stable and not easily “trained out”. In fact, a series of studies have shown that just short-term training can eliminate this gender difference. In addition, there are studies that suggest that childhood (early) experiences may also play a role: if girls spend more time playing with toys that require mental rotation (such as Lego), they play more outdoors , independent earlier (i.e. not going to school on their own with an adult)…then girls are no worse spatial than boys.
  In addition, it is worth noting that this phenomenon of women being disadvantaged in certain spatial abilities can only be found in some industrialized Western cultures. In contrast, among Inuit, there is no gender difference in mental rotation ability at all, and among Cree-Indians, it is even determined that women have an advantage in this area.
  Based on these results, there is no reason to believe that women cannot succeed in occupations that require spatial competence. This is also in the current MINT debate (which aims to get more women to work in the four fields of mathematics, informatics, natural sciences and engineering technology), people refute those who exaggerate the role of genes in gender differences, and insist on gender differences. The main argument for people whose opinions cannot be changed by differences.
  There are fewer women in the 4 areas covered by MINT, not because they are less gifted in these areas, but because they are less interested in them.

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