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The Kingship of Japan in the Middle Ages from the Perspective of Political Theology

In recent years, research on political theology has received unanimous attention from domestic and foreign historians. Political theology, as a political theory imported from the West, is generally divided into three schools: one is the political concept in the Christian theo-philosophical tradition; the other is the jurisprudence and state theory of Carl Schmitt (1888-1985); The third is Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz’s (Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz, 1895-1963) king’s dual attributes or kingship dual attribute theory. Political theology mentioned in this article mainly refers to Kang’s theory. Kang believes that in the construction of royal power in the Middle Ages in Europe, the concept of two kings was established by imitating the two natures of Christ, that is, the king has the dual nature of being human by natural nature and becoming divine by grace, and is the actor of Christ.

Kantorowicz further believes that there are three stages in the concept of duality and duality of kingship in Europe in the Middle Ages: in the first stage, the concept of duality is embodied in a mixed personality within the scope of religion and politics. The two natures are similar to Christ, who is human by natural nature and holy by grace; in the second stage, the king’s dual personality is transferred from the field of ceremonies to the field of law, and the king who “presents the image of Jesus Christ” is gradually replaced by a “righteous image”. The monarch was replaced and became a new type of “mixed personality”; the third stage was the late Middle Ages, when the king, nobles and commoners together constituted the “mysterious body” of the kingdom. Above, the continuity of kingship is guaranteed first by Christ, then by law, and then by the polity of the state. In the above-mentioned three stages of dualism, the Christian-based concept of the duality of man and God is the original, and it is the prototype of the latter two stages. In the course of medieval history, this dualism, derived from the Christian concept, was adapted and projected into the discourse of the secular realm to encapsulate the relationship between the monarch and the state. At the same time, Kang proposed that the kingship was endowed with permanence and permanence by Christ, Roman law or the political body of the state, resulting in the concept of “the crown never dies”. This theory of the “mixed personality” of kings, as well as the discussion of the political body and the natural body, also had a great impact on the field of research outside the European medieval history.

Compared with the European Middle Ages, the monarchy in the Middle Ages in Japan had significant complexity, which brought difficulties to discuss and analyze the duality of Japanese monarchy. Which part of the power in the Middle Ages of Japan can be called “royal power”, how to understand the coexistence of “public royal power” and “Samurai royal power”, the relationship between the emperor and the emperor, the validity of the title of “King of Japan” given by the international order, The relationship between the shogun and Tokuzong, etc., and the existence of many complex elements, made the royal power of the Middle Ages in Japan present a complex face that was different from that in the Middle Ages in Europe. How to explore the nature of Japanese monarchy in stages from the perspective of comparison between Japan and Europe has become a difficult problem that has not been fully resolved.

Regarding the duality of royal power in Japan in the Middle Ages, Japanese scholars have discussed the duality of royal power in the middle ages of Japan from two perspectives, namely, the duality of royal power of the public family and the dual royal power of Gongwu under the existing framework of Japanese historiography. First of all, in terms of the duality of public and royal power, that is, the relationship between the emperor and the court, Toshio Kuroda, the proponent of the “Guanmen System Theory”, believes that although the emperor lacks the ability to exercise power, he is still a king in the system, and he is a member of the power system. vertex. On the other hand, Ueshima pointed out that the authority of the medieval kingship was not absorbed by a single personality, but maintained duality or pluralism. Ihara Imasao and Kondo Seiichi pointed out the common political pattern of the emperor’s pro-government, the government of the Sekisaki, and the administration of the house, and this has basically become the consensus of the academic circles. Seiichi Kondo absorbed Sato Shinichi’s theory on the duality of “rulership and domination” and “master-subordinate domination” of samurai power, and analyzed the duality of public royal power and its origin. He believes that the first source of the authority to “govern the sky” led by the Court is the authority of the emperor and the imperial officials since the legal system, that is, “the right to rule”; the second source is the patriarchal authority as the emperor’s immediate family; the third source is the feudal authority The power of the court, that is, the “master-subordinate system of domination”, refers to the territorial relationship confirmation and jurisdiction exercised by the court. Kondo also proposed that the authority related to the national order in the “rule of dominance” belongs to the emperor, and the “master-subordinate domination” belongs to the emperor. Kondo structured the dual royal power of the public and the family, and analyzed the nature of the power of the emperor and the emperor. Kondo’s theory was criticized by Tetsu Ichizawa, who believed that the authority of “governing the sky” should be investigated in general. Although Kondo’s application of Sato’s theory may not be reasonable, his classification and analysis of the authority of the emperor and the emperor is still a good way to think about the power of the public.

Second, on the issue of the dual kingship of the public and military, Sato Shinichi once put forward the “Eastern State Theory”, which regards the Kamakura Shogunate as an “Eastern State” independent of the royal power of the public. After that, Kondo Seiichi regarded the middle-age kingship after the Jokyu Rebellion as the dual kingship of Gongwu. Imaya Akira pointed out that Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, the ruler of the Muromachi regime, tried to “usurp the kingship” and had an attempt to establish the “Muromachi kingship”. In recent years, Wu family kingship theory has been carried out more in the inspection of Wu family society. For example, Yuta Taniguchi believed that within the samurai society, the society of the Japanese archipelago in the late Middle Ages had the concept of Ashikaga as the apex, and he called this sequence and order ritual “the order of Ashikaga”. In other words, Ashikaga was not discussed as the “king” of Japan’s medieval state, but was re-discussed as a king within the samurai society. Taniguchi’s theory actually opened up a new perspective to explore the royal power in the Middle Ages, and made the academic circles have a new understanding of the nature of royal power. From the point of view of the samurai society itself, whether Ashikaga is a “king” does not require him to have the condition of “the monarch of the Middle Ages of Japan”.

On the basis of the above research, this paper attempts to deconstruct and reconstruct the Gongwu kingship by thinking through the Middle Ages, jumping out of the interpretation mode of one-dimensional and dual-dimensional kingship. No longer limited to the explanatory mode of “the dual kingship of the public family” or the “dual kingship of the government and the military”, it turns to the complex elements that constituted the kingship of the Middle Ages – the emperor, the ruler, the general, the Muromachi Hall, and the Tokuzong. The nature of “kingship” is analyzed separately, and the dual character or compound attributes of medieval kingship are discussed from the perspective of political theology. From a broader perspective, the discussion of “multiple kingship” is transferred to the analysis of “multiple nature kingship”. .

Firstly, it expounds the relationship and ideological basis between the emperor and the emperor, which constituted the main body of royal power in the Middle Ages in the early period of the Middle Ages (from the period of government administration to the period of Chengjiu Rebellion). In a nutshell, the ideological foundation of kingship in the early Middle Ages was the kingship view based on the concept of gods and Buddhas in the Middle Ages, culminating in the Ise Jingu Shrine (Amaterasu, Dairi Tathagata). Under the framework of this view of kingship, both the emperor and the emperor (“governing the sky”) are the constituents of kingship. Among them, the emperor is a human being according to his natural nature, sacred according to his bloodline and local Buddha, and is a priest-king with a dual personality of human and god; the emperor (“governing the sky”) is a ruler who administers affairs as a human being, and is also the emperor, the priest-king. The prime minister has only a single personality in personality, but has a dual nature in terms of power attributes. In addition, in the early Middle Ages, there were also very few emperors who “governed the sky”, that is, the emperor who ruled the sky, which will not be discussed in this section for the time being.

The difference between the Emperor of the Middle Ages and the Emperor of the Middle Ages is first reflected in the fact that the Emperor has two natures of man and God, while the Emperor of the Middle Ages is one of human nature. This distinction is fully reflected in the difference between the funeral of the emperor and the emperor. “The Story of Ronghua” said: “The emperor’s royal affairs (burial) after abdication is like a mere human (burial).” In this regard, Hori Yu made a detailed analysis of the emperor’s funeral ceremony. Horiyu believes that there is a ceremonial difference between the death of the emperor and the death of the emperor, that is, the latter is “the death of a person” and no funeral ceremony is held. This distinction appeared in the first half of the 11th century, and was marked by the addition of “presence” to the emperor’s funeral, in which the emperor who died during his reign was “hidden”, and the “abandonment” was the ceremony of abdication after death. It has not been announced to the public before. In other words, before the emperor abdicated, his death was not recognized by society. After the first half of the 11th century, the emperor was actually the “immortal emperor”, and the emperor could only die as the emperor. After that, a ceremony of abdication was held through the “Presence of Presence”, so that the emperor first retired from his divinity and held a funeral for the death of the “human” emperor.

Horihiro’s research keenly grasped the essential difference between the emperor and the emperor. That is, after the first half of the 11th century, the nature of the emperor and the emperor appeared to be clearly differentiated. It can be considered that after the emperor abdicated to become the emperor, although his natural body continued to exist, his sacred political body had transitioned to the new emperor, and the transition of political body only occurred between the abdication and the enthronement ceremony. The emperor’s sacred political body is “immortal”, eternal, and perpetual, similar to Kantorowicz’s words “the dying king and the new king become one”. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the two natures of man and God and the one nature of human nature between the emperor and the emperor. The emperor who abdicated was “just a person”, and his identity was actually the king’s prime minister, while the reigning emperor was the king of both human and divine.

In the Muromachi period, the minister Ichijo Kenyoshi (1402-1481) said in “Jiao Tan Zhi Yao”: “Because the emperor is the master of all gods, all the gods in Japan are controlled by him alone.” It can be regarded as a generalization of the sanctity of the emperor. Toshio Kuroda had a shrewd discussion on the dual nature of the emperor’s human and god. He pointed out that the emperor in the middle age was not regarded as a god, but was still a human being, but the emperor, as a descendant of the gods, received the protection of gods and had a special personality. The presence. Although the emperor is a human being, the sacred tool has the dignity of religion, and the throne is also sanctified because of the religious nature of the sacred tool. 8 It is not the emperor’s personal sanctification, but the sanctification of the emperor’s political body. Moreover, it is precisely because the emperor is sacred and is the master of the sacrifices of the gods—the priest king. There are many taboos and obstacles, so the main body of power implementation is more inclined to abdicate and exercise power as a “just human” emperor.

The concept of sanctity of medieval European monarchs was concretized by arming with the theory of the duality of the Christian man and the god, and the sanctity of the medieval Japanese emperor was theorized under the influence of Buddhism, not limited to the sanctity derived from blood and “artifacts”. The ideological logic that theorized the sanctity of the emperor was the local travesty thought that originated from the Middle Ages esoteric Buddhism. The local deity thought believes that the gods, Buddha statues and saints in Japan are the deities of the Western Buddha, Bodhisattva, and King Ming, and the sanctity of the Japanese gods is strengthened by Buddhism. Under the influence of this thought, after the 11th century, the priest-king attributes of the emperor were markedly Buddhist.

In the framework of the local ideology, Hiroshi Ueshima and Yoshiyuki Toshima discussed the theory of the same body of Amaterasu, the Great Sun Tathagata, and the Emperor in the Middle Ages. , The relationship between the Great Sun Tathagata and Vairocana Buddha is clarified and fixed. When the emperor ascends the throne, he must sit on the high throne, “knot hands like the big day”, and play the role of the big day in the ceremony. Through the principle of local trajectories, the relationship between the emperor’s human and divine natures has been systematically explained, that is, the emperor as a human personality is regarded as the incarnation of the emperor’s divine personality (Dainichi Tathagata). In addition, the emperor is also regarded as the ideal monarch over four continents in the Buddhist worldview, the “Golden Wheel Saint King”. “Golden Wheel Saint King” is a sacred existence in the Buddhist concept. According to legend, Sakyamuni was prophesied when he was young, and if he did not go home, he would be the wheel-turning king, the highest person in the secular world.

But in contrast, the emperor is not regarded as the “Golden Wheel Saint King”. For example, the wish text received in “Secret Copy Questions and Answers”: “I will be honored as the Golden Wheel Saint King for a long time, and the emperor of the immortal courtyard will be forever happy.” : “The Holy King of the Golden Wheel is forever… Zen Ding Xianyuan has a stable jade body.” In the above text, the emperor is generally referred to as “Nanzhanbuzhou Great Japan Supreme Emperor”, “Chan Ding Xianyuan Taishang Emperor”, and died. The emperor is “the Holy Spirit of meditation”, which is distinguished from the emperor who is the “Golden Wheel Saint King”. It can be seen that even in the field of Buddhism, the emperor of the dual nature of man and god and the emperor of one nature are completely separated. Once the emperor abdicates, he is “just a human being”, and thus loses the attributes of “Golden Wheel Saint King” and is not an incarnation of the Great Sun Tathagata.

Based on the above discussion, here is a simple comparison of the emperor and the emperor in tabular form. See Table 1.

Through the above comparison, it can be found that: Item 1 indicates that the emperor cannot become the subject of property holding under the manor system, and is far from the secular property ownership relationship. The emperor is the main body of the worship of the gods, so he needs to keep it clean, and the emperor is not afraid of filth; items 2 and 5 are also related to the right to worship the gods. This is because some shrines implement “separation of gods and Buddhas”, and monks will make the emperor Items 6 and 7 indicate that the emperor is still the king recognized by monastic Buddhism, but the emperor is not. Furthermore, it is clear that the fundamental difference between the emperor and the emperor is based on the fact that the emperor is a priest king who holds the right to worship gods.

However, the above discussion of priest-kings focuses on the sacrifice of gods. In the field of Buddhist sacrifice, does the emperor still have the character of a priest-king? Regarding this point, Kondo Seiichi believes that the worship of gods is the inherent authority of the emperor, the emperor is the main body of the worship of gods, and the main body of Buddhist kingship is the emperor. Is Kondo’s understanding reasonable? The author objected. Indeed, as mentioned by Ping Yaxing, after the Yuan Dynasty, the “King’s Temple” with the Yuan as the main body was established, and the national Buddhist practice was reorganized with the king as the center. ruler. However, the fact that “governing the sky” has become the actual ruler of Buddhism does not mean that it is the main body of Buddhist kingship. Tomio Kamikawa analyzed the confession text of the Emperor Goshirakawa, and pointed out that the consciousness of the Emperor Goshirakawa reflected the ideological structure of the only “Golden Wheel Saint King” (Gotoba Emperor) rather than the emperor himself. Hiroshi Ueshima also believes that the “Rokusho-ji Temple” built by the power of the Yuan during the period of administration was actually the Emperor’s Goan-ji Temple, a temple that prayed for the emperor’s body. For example, Sonshoji Temple is the Gowanji Temple of Emperor Horikawa, who has no experience in the administration of the hospital, and the Horikawa National Ji is held every year; Chengshengji Temple is the Gowanji Temple of the Emperor Sotoku, who has no experience in the administration of the prefectural government, and the Shonde Jiji is held every year. Therefore, although the power of the court is actually the ruler of temples, shrines and other powers, the king in concept is still the emperor.

This logic is the same as the principle of the emperor in charge of state affairs with the identity of “governing the sky”. The emperor is the ruler of the kingship and Buddhism as a human being. The emperor is not the main body of Buddhist kingship. The widespread use of the title of “Golden Wheel Saint King”, the concept of the Oneness of the Great Sun Tathagata, and the emergence of enthroned empowerment are actually the Buddhistization of the attributes of the emperor’s priest-king.

After the Zhicheng and Shouyong Rebellions (1180-1185), the idea of ​​the Tiantai monk and the author of “Fool Guanxi”, Ci Yuan, clearly reflected the power of the court as the emperor’s assistant. Ci Yuan said in the “Question and Answer of the Honourable Deity”: “The Lord” (Emperor), “Administrative Minister” (Sheguan), “Tai Shang Emperor”, “General” are all masters of Japan, but only the Emperor has “King”. number”. The emperor (“governing the sky”), with the identity of one human nature, not only acts as the emperor’s assistant, but also acts as the actual ruler of the emperor. This reflects the dual character of the power of the House of Representatives. The author believes that the power of the court as the prime minister is also a part of the king’s power, and it is the king’s power that is not a “king”. This kingship will develop a unique ideological logic that is different from the conception of gods after the 13th century.

It can be seen from the above that the emperor is a dual character of god and man, and he becomes a “human” after abdication. The emperor is afraid of filth, separated from gods and Buddhas, not allowed to become a monk, and not to die. It is an eternal and continuous divine existence.

As a natural body, the emperor does not necessarily need personal authority, but as a political body, he has permanent authority, which comes from the original priestly kingship. After the end of the 11th century, the emergence of the human-natured emperor, namely the power of the court, caused the separation of royal power. As a human emperor, like the previous generation’s Sheguan and the later generation’s Muromachi Hall, he lived in the position of the prime minister, and at the same time exercised his rule as a human being. The power has become a medieval kingship of another nature.

How did the kingship and view of kingship change in the middle of the Kamakura period (after the Jokyu Rebellion)? In general, the concept of kingship in the middle and late stages of Kamakura, in addition to the conception of kingship based on the concept of gods and Buddhas in the Middle Ages with the Ise Shrine (Amaterasu and the Great Sun Tathagata) as the apex, also appeared based on the rule of virtue. The concept of kingship under the concept of heaven. Under the dual view of kingship, there are three types of kingship: one is the emperor who does not “govern the sky”, that is, the emperor who does not govern. As in the previous period, the emperor who does not “govern the sky” is a human being according to his natural nature, His lineage and local Buddha are sacred, and he is a priest-king; the second is the emperor who “governs the sky”, that is, the emperor who is in power. His governing method is no different from that of the house. It came to the priest-king who originally belonged to the emperor. On the one hand, the emperor who “governs the sky” is a human being according to his natural nature, but he can act as the spokesperson of the destiny and the way of heaven. As a human being, as the spokesperson of the destiny and the way of heaven, he is the ruler of governance; at the same time, the emperor who “governs the sky” is also the assistant of the emperor (priest king), which is consistent with the previous nature. During this period, a kind of kingship different from the priest-king appeared, which was the “rule of virtue” based on the concept of destiny and the Tao of Heaven.

After the middle of the Kamakura period, the prominent feature of the concept of kingship was the emergence and prevalence of the idea of ​​rule by virtue. In the first half of the 14th century, the emperor of Huayuan described the reason why he exhorted the prince to diligently cultivate morality in the “Book of Commandments to the Prince”: “Since the Middle Ages, the imperial power has declined, and the emperor’s prestige has declined. Isn’t it sad.” Chengjiuzhi, which broke out in 1221 The chaos brought about a crisis of royal power, and Emperor Toba, who was the “governor of the sky”, failed in the confrontation with the Kamakura shogunate. In addition, Emperor Anto, who drowned in water during the Zhicheng and Shouyong Rebellions, and Toba and Shunde Emperor during the Jojiu Rebellion were exiled, showing the continuity of the royal power in the Middle Ages and the crisis of the Emperor, especially the political The responsible priest, Emperor Zhonggong, was also deposed. Against this background, various types of imperialism began to emerge. According to the research of Yasuo Kawakita and Yuki Sato, after the Jokyu Rebellion, a theory of emperor morality, which criticized the virtues of the Emperor Toba, appeared based on the thought of Mandate of Heaven and Confucian moralism. Since then, taking the opportunity of the establishment of the two regimes, the concept of the rule of virtue further rose. The 14th-century Ume Song Lun, when reviewing the Chengjiu Rebellion, once said: “For the sake of peace in the world, we should follow the way of heaven and carry out conquests.” The Heavenly Daoist was the Kamakura Shogunate. In the same way, when the “Ume Song Lun” describes the demise of the Kamakura shogunate a hundred years later, it also attributed the reason to “violating the mandate of heaven”.

The Mandate of Heaven is a political philosophy in China since the pre-Qin period. Only the virtuous can obtain the mandate of heaven, and the monarch must uphold the will of heaven, act according to the moral principles of heaven, and be responsible to heaven. 6 Under the Mandate of Heaven and the Taoist view of the rule of virtue, the emperor became an existence that could be defeated and overthrown, as well as an object that could be criticized and criticized. For example, the “Taipei Ji” describes the Kamakura shogunate when it dealt with Emperor Daigo: “There were King Wen and King Wu in different dynasties, and when there was justice and Taishi in this dynasty, they used the body of ministers to crusade the unruly monarchs and exile the unwholesome lords. .” This is what the view of kingship in the early Middle Ages did not have. Previously, although there was also the concept of rule of virtue based on the theory of heaven and man, the emperor had not yet been regarded as an object that could be overthrown and subjugated. However, it should be noted that the object of criticism of the emperor’s theory of morality in this period was mainly the emperor Toba, the founder of the Jokyu Rebellion, who was “governing the sky”. Emperor Zhonggong himself, who did not exercise the right to rule, could hardly be the object of criticism of the theory of imperial virtue. In addition, it is not the throne that is criticized, that is, the object of criticism is the emperor as a natural body, not the emperor’s political body.

In the late Kamakura period, with the drastic changes in the economic and social order of the Japanese archipelago brought about by climate change, the manor system was shaken, and the “job system” since the Middle Ages was in crisis. During this period, the demand for “governing the sky” to implement good and virtuous governance was increasing day by day. The word “virtue politics” became a high-frequency word in the later period of Kamakura. The so-called virtuous government is the behavior that shows the ruler’s virtue, and it refers to the decree issuing debt relief or rectifying the litigation system for the purpose of helping the poor in times of disaster or when the ruler changes. Ichizawa pointed out that the late Kamakura period was also a period of great changes in the internal relations of the public society. However, during this period, the Emperor of Heaven was divided into two branches: the Zhiming Yuan and the Dajue Temple. The succession to the throne was extremely unstable, and the governance of “governing the sky” lost its absolute effectiveness. At the same time, the Kamakura shogunate, which had greatly expanded its powers, also actively promoted the reform of the German government through the foreign police and military service system under the First Day War. The shogunate and “governing the sky” jointly promoted the revival of Confucianism and “moral governance”, and “governing the sky” was promoted by the shogunate. Among them, the most representative is the Hongan Dezheng (1284) jointly promoted by the ruler of the Kamakura shogunate, Taisheng Adachi, and the emperor Kameyama, the public government. This was an important political reform after the Yuan-Japanese War. It was a public-military-based moral and political reform promoted by both parties in pursuit of “the profound truth of reason and non-existence” and “the truth of success or failure”, aiming to save the social crisis and soothe the people. Tian” and Dezong both became spokespersons for the rule of virtue.

Yuki Sato believes that the appearance of the samurai history book “Azuma Mirror” during this period, as well as the formation of the samurai’s unique view of politics and morality, marked the independence of the samurai from the emperor. Sato’s knowledge is worthy of recognition to a certain extent. The emergence of the Wu family’s political and Taoist view has made the Wu family also the subject of moral governance; on the other hand, “governing heaven”, which promotes the reform of moral governance, is also the subject of moral governance. In addition, the mode of implementing the rule of virtue by “governing the sky” by Dezong has not changed, and the main body of the exercise of the overall dominance of the archipelago society is still “governing the sky”, so the author does not regard Dezong as kingship. All in all, the rule of virtue is related to the actual rulers, and it is a requirement for the rulers. Therefore, the orthodoxy of the practitioners of virtue rule comes from the emperor’s virtue under the concept of heaven and man. If the emperor cannot perform virtuous governance, he will lose the legitimacy given by the mandate of heaven and the way of heaven, and become the target of crusade. The influence of this Chinese-style concept of kingship has made Japan have a concept of kingship that is different from that of the priest king. The author calls this kind of monarch who governs based on the concept of the mandate of heaven and the Tao of Heaven as the “rule of virtue”. The rule of virtue is the requirement of the ruler of morality, not the requirement of the priest-king, and the attributes of the two are separated. Moreover, the monarchy ruled by virtue does not necessarily need to be a monarch of both natures and gods, but can be a monarch who rules in the identity of a person and is related to “heaven”.

The reason why the rule of virtue and rule of virtue prevailed in the late Kamakura period was not only related to the political realities such as the Jokyu Rebellion and the succession of the two regimes, but also related to the introduction of Confucianism in the Song Dynasty by Zen Buddhism at that time. Zen Buddhism is a new sect that was introduced to Japan from the Southern Song Dynasty at the end of the 12th century. After the late Kamakura period, it had a great influence on the Gongwu society, and changed the religious system in Japan after the 14th century to the Wushan Zen Forest, which represents the Zen culture circle in the south of the Yangtze River. The situation in which the explicit and secret systems coexist. Compared with the main bearer of the system of gods and Buddhas in the Middle Ages, the monks, the characteristics of Zen monks are mainly reflected in three aspects: First, the monks lack the systematic political thought of the Buddhist monks, such as the interdependence of the king, the Buddha and the law, and the authority of the Buddha. Teaching, the two worlds mandala country view, etc.; second, due to the influence of the “three religions in one” thought since the Song Dynasty, Zen Buddhism was greatly influenced by Confucianism and had a close relationship with Song Confucianism; third, Zen Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the early days As a non-establishment faction, they first contacted the Sheguan family, the Dezong family, etc., and then contacted the emperor. Therefore, it can be seen that there is a significant difference between the chanting of Zen monks and that of esoteric Buddhist monks. During the period of the Jianwu regime, Yuanyue Zen monk Zhongyan Yuanyue used a lot of Confucian vocabulary to describe the Emperor Houdaigo according to the standard of Chinese emperors, namely Confucian moralism. The sage uses esoteric concepts.

With the contact between Zen Buddhism and Gongwu rulers, the ideas of Song Confucianism also influenced the kingship of the Zong family and the Gong family. Fukatani pointed out that during this period, the Wu family regime converted to Zen, and the Zen monks were the comprehens of Confucianism and acknowledged the effectiveness of Confucianism on the political and social order. Zen Forest Zhu Zixue not only influenced the martial arts family, but also influenced the emperor, the public family, the doctor’s family, and influenced the new policy of Jianwu. For example, the emperor of the garden, who was close to Zen Buddhism, held talks on Confucianism on many occasions. He quoted Mencius and Zizhitongjian in his diary, and regarded the later period of Kamakura as “the era after Confucianism and Taoism have been abolished for a long time”. “Zhongxing” period. Later Emperor Daigo studied “The Doctrine of the Mean”, still “the righteousness of the Song Dynasty”, and “the style of the wind is based on Neo-Confucianism”. Against the above social and ideological background, the virtuous monarch was established in the late Kamakura period as a different type of royal power that was different from the priestly king. After the opening chapter of “Taiping Ji”, Emperor Daigo described the typical image of a monarch by virtue as an example: “Following the rules of the three cardinal guides and five constants, following the way of Confucius, the Duke of Zhou… Sincerely accepts the heaven (order) of the Holy Lord, and obeys the earth’s Mingjun.” Yes. It is said that the monarchy ruled by virtue embodies the Confucian ideal monarch image of “following the heavens and responding to the people” and “getting orders from the heavens”.

The emergence of virtuous monarchs relativized the dual nature of man and god (priest king), but relativization does not mean replacement and negation. The two can exist at the same time, or even superimpose on one person, such as the pro-governing emperor. The appearance of the virtuous monarch is similar to the king who “presents the image of justice” as the “spokesman of Roman law” in the late Middle Ages in Europe, and is similar to a “priest of destiny” that is different from the “priest of gods and Buddhas”.

On the other hand, the emergence of virtuous monarchs is also dangerous. The key to being a virtuous monarch is whether it conforms to the way of heaven, or whether it has the virtue of a monarch. Therefore, virtuous monarchs do not need to be endowed with sanctity by gods and Buddhas. Just as the Kamakura shogunate can be regarded as a follower of the way of heaven, and Emperor Toba is regarded as the target of deforestation, he only has the identity of “human”, and the emperor and Tokuzong, who promoted the reform of moral government, theoretically have the ability to become emperors ruled by virtue. The chances of the priest-king’s position are relatively decreased. Dezong, Zhitian, Sheguan, and Ashikaga are all qualified to serve as monarchs ruled by virtue. However, the author does not think that Dezong and Sheguan can actually become monarchs ruled by virtue.

In the late Kamakura period, the two superintendents established the absolute disappearance of “governing the sky”, and the “virtual government” initiated by them was easily denied. Shi Zezhe believes that the tendency to concentrate power towards “governing the sky” has suffered a decisive blow due to the split of the imperial family, and the only solution is the unification of the two regimes. Of course, under its own crisis, “governing the sky”, in addition to launching a virtuous government, implementing reforms, and seeking to build the image of a monarchy ruled by virtue, also tried to enhance its own authority in other aspects. , this is under the influence of “foreign subjugation and prayer”, “governing the sky” re-seeking for the armed theory of esoteric and esoteric Buddhism. However, this esoteric craze is personal, and does not mean that the role of “governing the sky” has been endowed with esoteric attributes, nor has it replaced the emperor’s priesthood. In the end, the upsurge of esoteric teaching ended when Emperor Daigo, a fanatical learner of esotericism in the 14th century, defeated Yoshino, and the Japanese archipelago fell into the background of the opposition between the Northern and Southern Dynasties. The ultimate outlet for Japanese monarchy is the birth of a new Tokuji monarch, the Muromachi Temple.

The kingship and view of kingship in the Muromachi period showed multiple characters. In general, the concept of kingship in the Muromachi period is basically similar to that in the middle and late Kamakura period. , the combination of the concept of heaven and the concept of kingship. Due to the weakening of the royal power of the public family and the strengthening of the power of the Muromachi Hall during the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the main body of the royal power in this period has four forms: one is the emperor who is not “governing the sky”. The second is the emperor who “governs the sky”, who is human according to his natural nature and can also govern as the spokesperson of the mandate of heaven and the way of heaven, but the nature of the main body of governance during this period has weakened, and the emperor who “governs the sky” is still a priest. King; the third type is the emperor who “governs the sky”, as a human being, as the spokesperson of the mandate of heaven and the way of heaven, the ruler of governance, and at the same time the emperor (priest king) Auxiliary; the fourth type is “governing the sky” Or the Muromachi Hall with the status of “Zunsheguan”. The Muromachi Hall also takes the identity of a human being, as the spokesperson of the mandate of heaven and the way of heaven, and is also the assistant of the emperor (priest king).

After the Guanying Disturbance (1349-1351), the subjectivity of the public royal power was weakened and it was attached to the Muromachi shogunate. Although the public government still maintained the mode of operation since the Middle Ages, the Muromachi Hall was the actual ruler of the unified government of the public military. The position of “governing the sky” since the Middle Ages. Among the above four forms, the second and third are weakened. The most mainstream of this period was the combination of the emperor (priest king) who was not “governing the sky” and the Muromachi-den (the monarch of virtue rule) who “governed the sky” or “Zunsheguan”. It is generally believed that the status of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu was “governing the sky”, and most of the Muromachi temples such as Ashikaga Yoshichi were “quasi-shoguan” status.

Akira Imaya put forward the theory that Ashikaga Yoshimitsu usurped the kingship in the book “The Kingship of Muromachi”, but this claim has been questioned by most scholars. Although the author here regards the Muromachi Palace as a kind of royal power, I do not think that the royal power is equivalent to the emperor or the imperial family. The kingship of nature – the monarchy ruled by virtue. Therefore, the Muromachi Hall is the emperor of virtue rule on the one hand, and the emperor’s assistant on the other hand, and the two are not contradictory. Therefore, the Muromachi Hall has a dual character. Kawai Yasushi pointed out that after the establishment of the Muromachi shogunate, the Ashikaga clan established the nobleness of the Ashikaga clan’s lineage through multiple means; Imperial flags, imperial sleeves, etc., are intended to show that the Ashikaga Army was the emperor’s army that supported the Northern Dynasty. Muromachi-den’s two types of political work prominently reflect his dual nature. The former represents the superiority of Muromachi-den’s lineage within the samurai family, and the latter represents its prime minister, the emperor, whose authority comes from the characteristics of the emperor.

Regarding the latter, the status of Muromachi-den can be called “the deacon of the heavenly royal family”. According to “Doing the next year in the temple” compiled by Kamakura Prefecture in Kanto, “the two temples in Kamakura, Kyoto, are the officials of the emperor.” It can be seen that in the knowledge of the samurai in the middle of the 15th century, the Muromachi temple in Kyoto and the Kamakura public in Kanto are ” The Son of Heaven acts as an official”, that is, the person who controls the state affairs on behalf of the Son of Heaven. Ishihara Hiero pointed out that in the medieval government, the elements of “governing the sky” and the regent and Guanbai’s regimes were basically the same. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who is equivalent to “governing the sky,” and Ashikaga Yoshichi, who is “quasi-settlement gate”, are both the existence of the auxiliary emperor in their basic attributes – the deacon of the royal family. Ishihara also believed that the Ashikaga family created a system to monopolize the royal authority of the Northern Dynasty. This was a political means to establish a transcendent authority in the political struggle of the shogunate, differentiate it from the guardian daimyo, and establish the authority of a shogun, making the Muromachi Hall the only one in the samurai family that was closely related to the emperor. the existence of the connection. The reason for this is that the Muromachi Shogunate was established with the support of the Northern Dynasty, and its source of legitimacy and authority was the Emperor. Therefore, the Muromachi Hall of successive dynasties abides by the status of the Emperor’s Prime Minister. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who became the “ruler of heaven”, was not the emperor, but was still the emperor’s prime minister.

But on the other hand, the Muromachi Hall, which replaced the position of “governing the sky” or “quansheguan”, is also a new kind of monarchy ruled by virtue. An article in Jianliang’s “Qiao Tan Zhi Yao” pointed out that the Muromachi Hall is “the great general of the world’s ruler”, “The ruler of the world should have no insufficiency, and execute the administrative way… Listen to the voices of the people day and night, decide right and wrong, and realize his long-cherished wish. Such as the compassion of Ksitigarbha Guanyin and the benevolence and virtue of Tang Yao, Yu and Shun, there must be no other way.” In other words, a piece of Jianliang exhorted Ashikaga to practice benevolent governance, respect Buddhism, and listen to the voices of the people. Such a requirement is typical of Confucian moralism, but it also includes the requirement to respect Buddhism. One of Kanyoshi’s requirements for the “Lord of the World” Muromachi-den is to become a virtuous monarch. Not only that, but Muromachi-den himself has a considerable understanding of moralism. Enohara Masaharu pointed out that the document of Changfuku Temple mentioned “the benevolent government of the mirror royal generation”, linking the beginning of Ashikaga Yoshimo’s rule with the government of virtue. Ying Yong’s petition reflects the social level’s expectations for “benevolent governance”, “good governance” and “righteousness” at the beginning of Ashikaga’s rule. Ashikaga Yoshimo himself was also fully aware of “only benevolence and government” and “to the monarch above Yao and Shun”, he had a strong understanding of benevolent government, and had the consciousness of becoming a monarch governed by virtue.

Besides that, Muromachi Hall actually has more different images in other areas. As Yuta Taniguchi pointed out, Muromachi Hall was the “king of the samurai” within the samurai society. After the Ashikaga Yoshimitsu period at the end of the 14th century, the absolute concept of Ashikaga was formed within the samurai family, and Ashikaga was regarded as a superior ideologically and socially. This kind of understanding also has considerable influence outside the martial arts society. In addition, in the East Asian international order, the Muromachi Hall was also the “King of Japan” conferred by the Ming Dynasty. Although Hashimoto and others pointed out that the title of “King of Japan” was not used in Japan’s domestic order, Wushan Zen Forest, which was deeply influenced by Song and Yuan culture, accepted this title to a certain extent. For example, the Zen monk Qiyang Fangxiu said that “Wuzhou is a great guardian, and it was at the beginning of the king’s appointment. He held the Jun axis for thirteen years.” The king here actually refers to Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, not the emperor, Wuzhou. The prefect was Hosokawa Laizhi, who was in charge of the ruling power at the beginning of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu’s coming to the military position. However, the overall perception of the Goyama Zen Forest as the Emperor’s prime minister has not changed. In addition, the Shingon monk Manji, a close believer of Ashikaga Buddhism, also said, “If you are in power, you can’t be a king.” In fact, he approved the use of the “King” by the Muromachi Hall.

The above two identities of “king” actually enhance the rationality and legitimacy of Muromachi as “king”. In addition, after Ashikaga Yoshimitsu became a monk, he took charge of the country as “governing the sky”. After his death, he was once posthumously named “French Emperor”. Later Zen monks publicly pointed out when Ashikaga Yoshimitsu had completed the century-old statement: “The Emperor is the title of the emperor of our dynasty. Also, (Ashika Yoshimitsu) is honorable and honorable.” This reflects Wushan Zen Forest’s recognition of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu’s status as the emperor. As mentioned in the previous section, “governing the sky” was the first subject of power to obtain the status of the monarchy ruled by virtue, and Ashikaga Yoshimitsu also acted in the identity of “governing the sky”, which further strengthened his legitimacy as a monarchy ruled by virtue.

It can be said that Muromachi Hall’s status as the “virtue ruler” has actually stabilized. The rule of virtue based on the way of heaven and destiny has become a social consensus, which is reflected in the repeated moral decrees of the Muromachi era, as well as the bottom-up demands for moral government. The Muromachi Temple, which became the “lord of the world”, is like the power of the “governing heaven”. It does not need to play the role of a holy priest-king, but conforms to the mandate of heaven as a human being and plays the role of a virtuous monarch. At the same time, since the Middle Ages, the concept of gods and Buddhas with the Ise Jingu as the apex still exists, and the emperor as the priest-king is still the most important kind of royal power. Therefore, there were actually at least two kinds of “kings” in the Muromachi period: one was the priest-king (not the emperor who “governs the sky”) based on the concept of gods and Buddhas since the Middle Ages, the descendants and incarnations of gods and Buddhas; the other was based on virtue The ruler of virtue ruled by the concept of Mandate of Heaven and the Tao of Heaven is the spokesman of the rule of heaven, and the ruler of rule of virtue acts as the prime minister of the priest-king in the structure of the previous item. Therefore, Muromachi Hall, as a kind of royal power, also has a dual character.

4. Remainder
It can be seen from the above that there were at least two typical kings in the Middle Ages in Japan: one was the priest king, and the other was the ruler of virtue. . Both the public and samurai royal powers after the middle of Kamakura can be understood as the superposition of two kinds of royal powers. Therefore, the kingship should not be simply divided into the dual kingship of public and military, but the multiple attributes of each kingship subject should be discussed separately.

In addition, each subject of power that constitutes a part of the royal power, such as the emperor, the emperor, and the Muromachi-den, has dual or pluralistic characters under the influence of these two properties. The role of the priest-king is a dual nature of man and god; a virtuous monarch has only human nature, but he can also act as the prime minister of the priest-king. From this perspective, it is dualistic. Specifically, based on the concept of gods and Buddhas in the Middle Ages with the Ise Jingu as the apex, the emperor was the priest-king from beginning to end; based on the Confucian concept of moralism or the concept of destiny and heaven, the “governance of heaven” in the middle and late Kamakura was responsible for the rule of virtue. The monarch, the Muromachi Temple in the Muromachi period served as the monarch of the virtues. The coexistence of the two concepts of kingship makes the ruler have a dual character.

Here is a brief summary of the form of kingship after the emergence of the concept of monarchy by virtue in tabular form. See Table 2.

Then, how will such dual character or multiple attributes manifest after entering modern times? First, the thought of the Tao of Heaven has exerted a greater influence in modern times. Katsumi Fukagu ​​pointed out that the thought of the Tao of Heaven in modern times is different from the belief in the heaven of monotheism. The thought of the Tao of Heaven is mixed with other beliefs of gods and Buddhas. Governance subject that conforms to the way of heaven. Kanda Chiri also pointed out that the daimyo of the Warring States Period tried to govern in the direction of adapting to the “Dao of Heaven”. For example, Yasushi Hojo proposed to follow the Tao of Heaven, implement moral governance, and pursue reasonable politics. From this, it can be seen that the thought of the Tao of Heaven has taken an extremely central position in the modern concept of kingship. But on the other hand, the existence of the consciousness of the kingdom of God also indicates the existence of the system of gods and Buddhas with the Ise Jingu as the apex and the concept of worshipping gods and worshipping Buddhas, which requires the recognition of the emperor as the priest-king.

After modern times, the role of Confucianism in the political field has been continuously improved. Tokugawa Ieyasu studied the imperial studies of the Chinese and Japanese dynasties, and learned the way of the emperor as an emperor. The general’s will is “shangyi”, and the central government is “gongyi”, which is the actual lord of the world. The rulers who learned Confucianism in modern times were the result of the development of moral monarchs since the Middle Ages, and they were more theoretical and systematic moral monarchs.

On the other hand, after the Warring States Period, the emperor and the public family declined significantly, and the samurai family actually became the ruler of the public family. In particular, the “immortal emperor”—the perpetuity of the emperor’s political body embodied in funerals, abdication, and enthronement ceremonies—is unsustainable in itself, because the enthronement and replacement ceremonies cannot be held as usual. In recent times, “Forbidden China and Public Family Laws”, “Purple Clothing Incident”, “One Piece of Honor”, etc., have shown the decline of the emperor’s status.

In addition, the emperor’s status as a priest-king was also in crisis. The premise for the Emperor of the Middle Ages to become the Priest King was a nationwide system of gods and Buddhas with the Ise Shrine as the apex, and the Emperor was the “Lord of the Hundred Gods”. However, after modern times, a new god different from the old system of gods – Tosho Ieyasu’s god name “Tosho Daigoen” – was created, and the shogunate established a system of Toshogu ceremonies throughout the country. Gen Nomura believes that even though “Tosho Daikenken” was incorporated into Japan’s old god system during the Tokugawa Iemitsu period, “Tosho Daikenken” and Ise Jingu were still highlighted from among the many gods in Japan. , making the nation’s daimyo assembled under the “Toshao Daiquan” as the national military god. The Sone Principle, through the interpretation of “The Origin of the Toshosha Society” by Nanguang Fang Tianhai, the founder of the Tokugawa Ieyasu God, pointed out that although the concept of “Tosho Taiquan” does not deny the superiority of the emperor, it actually formed a restriction on the emperor. It is the overcoming of the authority of the emperor. After the third year of Zhengbao (1646), the emperor even began to send coin envoys to the Nikko Toshogu Shrine at the request of the shogunate, regularly donating coins and silks to the Tosho Shrine, making the “Nikko coin envoy” one of the most important sacrificial activities in the imperial court. one. Toshogu had a prominent position in the system of gods and Buddhas under the rule of the Edo shogunate, and it posed no small challenge to the system of gods and Buddhas centered on Ise, which was bound to threaten the emperor’s status as a priest-king. Regarding the issue of Toshogu, further research and discussion are required.

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