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The History of Nihon Shoki from the Perspective of East Asia

In the fourth year of Emperor Yuanzheng’s retirement (720), Japan’s first “National History”, “Nihon Shoki” (hereinafter referred to as “Shoki”) was officially written and presented to the imperial court, which is the first official history of Japan. The compilation of “Shu Ji” has a strong trace of Chinese historiography. Kojima Xianzhi and Xu Xiaofeng once conducted an in-depth study of the dictionaries in the Book of Records, and pointed out that a large number of the original texts in Chinese history books were used to polish the historical materials. However, with regard to the most critical genre of historical books, most of the early studies believed that “Shu Ji” did not consciously generate the concept of historical genre, but simply imitated and inherited the historical books seen. The 13th-century Annotation Collection “Shi Nien Ji” upholds this point of view, and believes that “Shu Ji” has three major characteristics: the author does not annotate the name of the author, the author makes an annotation, and the annotation does not explain the historical data but cites different theories. And these characteristics are all derived from Chinese classics. After the war, scholars represented by Kamada Junichi and Kobayashi Toshio pointed out that the genre of “Shoji” originated from the “Benji” in Chinese official history, while Matsuda Nobuhiko paid attention to the opening two volumes describing the formation of heaven and earth and the birth of gods. The “Kindaiki”, and the narrative logic with the emperor as the core of the narrative is unique to Japan. It can be seen that although there are many debates on the genre of “Book of Records” in the academic circles, most of them focus on literary style, dictionaries, and arrangement of historical materials. This will be discussed.

The Japanese court compiled six works on the history of the country between the 8th and 10th centuries, known as the “History of the Six Kingdoms”. These history books all adopt the chronological style, and the five national histories, including the “Continued Japan Chronicle” (hereinafter referred to as “Xu Ji”), will be suffixed with the records of the death of the clan officials. The “Death Ceremony” of the “Old Ageing Order and Funeral Order” stipulates: “Where a hundred officials die, the prince and three or more are called the death; “Biography of Death”. The “biography of the death of the dead” is a major feature of the Japanese official history books, and the Japanese academic circles believe that the style of the “six kingdoms history” has a special feature, and named it “national history style”. Taro Sakamoto once put forward: “The style of the shoji is neither the biography nor the chronology, but a mixture between the two.” This inference has also affected the domestic academic circle’s understanding of the style of the shoji, such as Han Sheng pointed out: “In order to emphasize the supremacy of monarchical power in a political society with strong aristocrats, Japan deliberately highlighted the “Di Ji” and attached the ‘biography’ of the ministers to the ‘ji’ of the emperor, which not only imitated the style of Chinese history books, but also formed its own characteristics.” Zhongxi Kangyu once classified the biography of the death of the characters in the “Xu Ji” into the following 10 parts: family history, personality, official calendar, deeds, age, prison and funeral envoy, condolence, gifted official, and gifts and other matters. For example, in the “Continued Chronicles”, it is said that Emperor Deku, the second year of Tianping Shenhu (766), was passed away on June 28.

Xingbuqing passed away from three Baekje kings Jingfu. Its predecessor came from King Yici of the Baekje Kingdom… Indulgent and unrestrained, he was quite fond of wine. I feel that Emperor Shengwu has been favored and rewarded generously. From time to time there are clerks who come to sue the poor. Every fake other thing, look outside with it. Because of the frequency of foreign appointments, the family has no money left. When the nature is discerned, there is the amount of political affairs. In the middle of the balance year, Shizhi was guarded by Mutsu from five. At that time, when Emperor Shengwu made a bronze statue of Lusena, the cloud was finished, but the gold coating was insufficient. As for the gold of the Mutsu country, 900 taels from Oda County, the country’s gold, has been produced since then. Emperor Shengwu was highly regarded as Jiashang, and he granted three servants. Shengbao paid homage to Changlu Shou for four years, moved to Zuo Daben, and frequented the country Shou of Izumo, Sanuki, and Iyo. At the beginning of the protection of God, he served as Minister of Punishment. He died at the age of sixty-nine.

The death biography of King Jingfu of Baekje can be said to be very typical, which contains the five elements of family background, character, official calendar, deeds, and age in the above-mentioned death biography elements, which are fully detailed. According to the statistics of Zhongxi Kangyu, there are a total of 152 memoirs of death in the “Su Ji”, of which the biography in the first 20 volumes is relatively light in color, and mostly focuses on family history, while the biographical elements after the 20 volumes increase significantly. For a long time, predecessors’ research on the “Biography of the Death of the Dead” has focused on the “History of the Five Kingdoms” after the “Shu Ji”, and hardly paid attention to the origin of the “Biography of the Death of the Dead” that appeared in the chronicles of the death of the “Shu Ji”. Compared with the following five national histories, most of the accounts of the death and death of the characters in the first book “Shu Ji” are very brief and easily overlooked. For example, the death of the prince Caobi, the crown prince of the Chitong Dynasty, is only a few words: “Yiwei, the crown prince Caobi is honored to die”. But there are some unusual cases in these records. Taro Sakamoto once noticed that Suga Mazi’s death records in May 20, the thirty-fourth year of the emperor’s 34th year (626) had a structure similar to that of the death of the soldiers. . “Book of Records” contains: “The minister passed away and is still buried in the Taoyuan tomb. The minister is the son of Inamusu, the son of Ni, who is martial and talented. In order to respect the Three Treasures, his home is near the Flying Bird River. It is open in the courtyard. Xiaochi, still building a small island in the pond, was called the Minister of the Island at that time.”

In addition, there is a similar record in the second year of Emperor Tianmu (673) of the death of Shazhai Zhaoming on June 6: “Dajinxia Baekje Shazhai Zhaoming died. He was a smart and wise man, and he was called a scholar at that time. Therefore, the emperor was shocked. In the end, I would like to give you the position of Xiaozi, and I will give you the same position as the chief of the country.” On October 3, the first year of Zhuniao (686), a posthumous note was attached to the death of Prince Dajin: “Prince Dajin, the real person of Yingying in the Central Plains of Tianding. (Tianwu) Emperor’s third son. Rong Zhiqiangan, handsome in speech and voice, loved by Emperor Tianming Kaifa (Tianzhi), and long-standing talent and learning, especially love of writing, poetry and poetry began in Dajin.”

It can be seen that these death records have already involved the elements of family background, character, deeds, conferred officials and other elements in the aforementioned “Xu Ji” “Biography of the Death”. In the first half of the “Book of Records”, there are already a lot of death records involving the burial place, deeds and other information. For example, in the 11th year of the ancient emperor (603), the death of Prince Laimu: “Prince Laimu died in Zhuzi, and he was still sent to the post to record it. When the emperor heard of it, he called the crown prince and minister Su Wu to say: ‘Zhi The great general of Xinluo came to see the prince’s death, and he failed to meet the important event, which is very sad! ‘The funeral was still in Zhoufang Sapo, but he sent the local division Lian Zhushou Lingzhang to carry out the funeral, so the grandson of the pigshand company was called Sapolian. This is the fate. It was later buried on the hill of Hanoi in Hanoi.” In the fifth year of Emperor Xiaode’s Taihua (649), the left minister Abene Maro died, and there is also “the emperor is fortunate to the Suzaku gate, and mourns and grieves. The grandmother of the emperor, the crown prince. Waiting for all the ministers and ministers, all of them will mourn as described in the deeds. From this, it can be inferred that at the stage of writing the “Book of Records”, historians have already begun to add biographical elements to the post-mortem records. Going back to its origins, Japanese aristocrats have long had a tradition of writing notes for their members. In the twenty-eighth year of Emperor Tuigu (620), Prince Shotoku and his minister Suga Mazi discussed together, “Recording the “Records of the Emperor” and “Records of the Kingdom”, the records of ministers, companies, companions, and the hundred and eighty books of the state and citizens, etc. “. As a product of the establishment of the upper-level ruling order in Japan, the materials required for the compilation of this book, such as the minister, the company, the companion, and the 180th and the citizens of the country, naturally came from the records provided by the various families. “Continued Chronicles” in the ninth year of the extended calendar (790) in the seventh month of the new year, Jinlianzhendao, a scholar from the East Palace, made a request to Emperor Huanwu to “change the surname and be bestowed with courtiers”. The above table once said that the ancestor Wang Chener served The deeds of Emperor Minda, “Sibing the country’s historians, the details are recorded.” Wang Chen’er’s deeds can be found in the “Book of Records” in the first year of Emperor Minda (575) in the May Bingchen article, and the “family letter” should be a family record passed down by Wang Chener’s descendant Jin. Zhaibu Guangcheng also said in the “Supplements of Ancient Words” written by his own family: “The state historian’s ultimatum contains its reasons. One or two grievances are still left behind.” It can be seen that in ancient times, various nobles wrote family records in the past. It has become a source of historical materials for the compilation of national history.

Around the 7th century, the writing of family biographies became more standardized. In “Da Zhiguan Biography”, it is mentioned that after the death of the middle minister Kamazuki in the eighth year of Emperor Tenchi (669), the aforementioned Baekje bureaucrat Shazhai Zhaoming wrote an inscription for him. The records of the death of Suwo Mazi left in the “Book of Records” should also be derived from the records of his son Suwo Cangmalu. Although the Suga Ezo and Rika clan were killed in the Ottosi Rebellion, the Kuramaro clan held important positions until the Heian period. In addition, Japan also has the habit of building tombs. The “Funeral Order” stipulates that “every tombs are erected with steles, and the tombs with the official names are recorded.” However, according to archaeological findings, before the formation of Lingwen, an epitaph appeared in Japan. At present, there are 16 ancient epitaphs unearthed in Japan. The time is concentrated from the end of the 7th century to the end of the 8th century. Although the number and content of the epitaphs are detailed, it is enough to show that the family records at that time were written in a rough system. For example, the bronze-plate epitaph of Queen Chuan, the grandson of Wang Chener who was buried in the seventh year of Emperor Tianzhi (668):

However, the head of the old Queen of the Chuan family is the son of the old head of the Chuan family, Wang Zhiren, who is the first of the Chuan family (ancestor). Born in the world where the emperor of the world (Minda) was ruled by the Chaogong Palace, he served as an official in the dynasty where the emperor of the world was ruled by the Luogong (Tuigu). As for the dynasty of the emperor (Shu Ming) in the world governed by the Asuka Palace, the emperor saw it, knew his talents, and had meritorious deeds. He died at the end of Emperor Asuka, and was buried on Songyue Mountain in December of the Wuchen year. The co-wife An Li was able to take a knife from the same tomb, and the tomb of his elder brother, Dao Luo Gushou, was also used as the tomb. It is the mausoleum of security for all generations, and it is the treasure land of eternal calamity.

The family history, the official calendar, the time of birth and death, the place of burial and other personal biographical elements have already been involved here. In addition, the compilation of family memorabilia is not only used in epitaphs. For example, in November of the second year of Emperor Chitong (688), the crown prince, Prince Caobi, led a group of ministers to cry in the funeral palace of Emperor Tianwu. In August of the same five years (691), the emperor ordered 18 clans, including the Daimiwa, Sparrow, Ishigami, and Fujiwara, to “promote the tombs of their ancestors”. Scholars represented by Sakamoto Taro believe that the “grave notes” mentioned here are records that describe the deeds of ancestors like epitaphs, and are historical records of the inheritance of various clans. Among the 80 memoirs of the corpses in the Book of the Books, the corpses before the Tianwu Dynasty, except for a few cases such as Suga Mazi and Prince Shotoku, indeed only the place of death and the place of burial are listed in the appendix, without even a single word. It can be inferred that these accounts with biographical elements should also have originated from the clan’s early records of the ancestors collected by the court.

It is worth noting that after the Tianwu Dynasty, the style of death records changed and the number increased sharply. There are 80 records of the death records of officials and royal families in the entire “Book of Records”. In the 13th year of the Tianwu Dynasty, there were 42 records, accounting for 42 records. More than half, and most of these death records are accompanied by records of the emperor’s gift of officials. The key to this change should be the fierce political struggle. In 672 AD, Emperor Tenchi died and his son, Prince Otomo, ascended the throne, but the Emperor Taito, who was the emperor’s younger brother at the time, was supported by the local nobles of the Eastern Kingdom and raised a rebel flag to attack the Omi court that supported Prince Otomo. After a series of battles between the two armies, the Omi court was defeated, Prince Otomo committed suicide, and Prince Hairen succeeded to the throne as Emperor Tenmu. This is the famous “Rinshen Rebellion” in ancient Japanese history. After Emperor Tenmu ascended the throne, on the one hand, in order to stabilize his rule, he was appointed as a minister of the dragon, and on the other hand, he also intended to establish legitimacy through historical activities. The practice of establishing orthodoxy by revising history has existed before. Sasakawa Shangji pointed out that in the twenty-eighth year of the ancient emperor (620), the emperor ordered Prince Shotoku and Suga Ma Zi to record the “Record of the Emperor”, which was the result of his father, Jinming. One of the highlights of the event on the occasion of the Emperor’s 50th anniversary. Since Emperor Tianmu used force to eliminate the power of Prince Otomo and turned against the Omi court, he naturally needed to consciously sort out the existing relevant accounts. Nuclear old rhetoric. Cut falsification and confirm the truth, and want to leave behind” is the embodiment of this action. In order to reward the large number of “meritorious men” produced in the Renshen Rebellion, the court also needed to collect relevant records of meritorious men. The “merit of the year of Renshen” that appeared in large numbers in the death records of the Tianwu to Wenwu dynasties. The language is immediately reflected in the national history of the hero’s memoirs. In addition, according to Hiroshi Hosui’s arrangement, the astronomical records of “Book of Records” appeared in the Qiming Dynasty and Tianzhi Dynasty. Most of the official records are lost. It is conceivable that when Prince Sheren set out to compile the “Book of Records”, the loss of records from previous dynasties had become a major problem. Therefore, the historical revision project in this period, as the origin of national history, needs to be carried out under a standard framework, and this framework is the “order”.

In February of the tenth year of Emperor Tianwu (681), the emperor ordered the princes and ministers to establish the prince of Caobi as the crown prince, “to command all the possibilities”, and to lead the compilation of laws and regulations to implement the operation of the bureaucratic system. It is worth noting that the order of Emperor Tianwu to “remember the imperial concubine and all things in ancient times” was exactly what happened in the following March. Emperor Tianmu passed away before he could see the completion of the writing of the decree, and Prince Kusaobi also died suddenly in April in the third year of Emperor Chitong (689). Only two months after his death, the imperial court gave the commander a 20th grade. Two volumes”, this is “Asuka Jingyuyuan Order”. One of the main reasons why Emperor Chitong hurriedly issued the “decree” before completing the “law” was the need to stabilize the unstable political situation after Caobi’s untimely death, and to declare his compliance with the policy of the Tianwu Dynasty. Although the content of this “Flying Bird Pure Royal Order” does not exist, it can be judged to be an attack on Tang Ling. Ten days before the promulgation of the decree, the imperial court ordered to “give the Tang Dynasty Xushouyan, Sa Hongke and other rice, each with its own shortcomings.” 8 These two were prisoners of the Tang Dynasty sent by Baekje to Japan, and were later named Doctors of Sound, responsible for teaching Chinese phonetics. The gift of rice this time should be a reward for the two of them to participate in the formulation of the “Asuka Pure Royal Order”. At the same time as the decree was formulated, the Chitong Dynasty was also steadily advancing the compilation of historical materials. It was also on June 2 of that year that the emperor ordered: “The prince Shiji, the courtier Su Namaro of Zhiguangsi, the courtier Qi of Haneda, the Iyubu of Qinguang, the old man of Tiaoji-inch, and the servants. Dashen, great companion, Su Ni, and the giant courtier Doegsu, etc., worship the Department of Writing Good Words.” Kazuo Aoki pointed out that the Department of Writing Good Words set up by Emperor Chitong was modeled on the 30 volumes of “Good Words in Ancient and Modern Times” written by Fan Tai of the Southern Dynasty Song Dynasty. specialized agency. Although this institution ultimately failed to compile a book, the materials collected by it were also used in the compilation of the “Book of Records”. 2 It can be seen that the historical compilation work of the imperial court at this time and the formulation of legal orders have important significance in shaping the legitimacy, so there is a certain coherence.

In the first year of Dabao (701) after Emperor Wenwu ascended the throne, the “Dabao Law” was completed. Although the “Dabao Order” is lost, its content is basically inherited from the later “Old Care Order”. In order to be able to fully grasp the general history of each family, the “Staff Order” entrusted the relevant powers to Shibu-sho, and Shibu-qing managed the “heritage of the heroic family”. The “Lingyi Interpretation” commented on this: ” It is called a family of meritorious deeds, enter its family biography, and save more writing and repairing.” This article is actually derived from the powers of the Kao Gong Langzhong under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Personnel in the Tang Dynasty. The “Tong Dian” records the power of the Kao Gong Langzhong: “In charge of inspecting the internal and external officials and the family biographies, monuments, eulogies, eulogy, etc. posthumous and so on.” This article should be directly adopted from the “Three Divisions, Three Gongtai Provincial Staff Orders” in the Tang decree. It should be said that, unlike the previous history revisions, the Book of Records was the first national history to be completed under the legal system, and the legal system also institutionalized the process of collecting historical materials and compiling historical books. For example, the family record system of the nobility actually took shape before the law came, but the formation of the family inheritance system of the meritorious officials marked that the court began to use the law as a tool to collect and manage the nobility’s record system, forming a set of historical sources. , which is also one of the major reasons for the establishment of the “Biography of the Death of the Dead” after the “Continuation”. This is not only the need of the imperial court to repair history, but also an important means to unify the historical narrative and enhance the legitimacy of the rule. The clues left in the “Book of Records” about the death of the dead soldier are just a form of running-in in which the early aristocratic historical materials were incorporated into the history revised by the imperial court.

So, is the formation of such a “biography of the dead” a historical form spontaneously formed in Japan? The predecessors have made a lot of judgments on this issue. Taro Sakamoto believes that this type of history has the characteristics of both chronicle and chronicle. Ima Nishi and Shigeya Fukui keenly pointed out that this type actually originated from the Tang Dynasty record. On the basis of this understanding, Akio Kamano explained this issue from the stipulations on the compilation of historical records in the “Ling”. Under the system of laws and orders, the department in charge of “editing and compiling the history of the country” is the Shuliao under the Ministry of Central Affairs. “Ling Ji Jie” further notes and explains it in detail:

Xue Yun: “The history of the country is said to be recorded by the Dangsi, and the “Lingshi” is called the book recorded by the historian, if it is actually recorded.” And “Gu Ji” said: “The history of the country, the events at that time recorded the name of the book, For example, “Spring and Autumn”, “Han Shu”, etc., it is also a real record of things.” Zhu Yun: “The selection of national history is also called a real record of things. What is it, the “Kao Ke Ling” cloud’s detailed records of the canon, the words and rationale are also cited, which is the most literary and historical ‘That’s why.”

“Gu Ji” and “Zhu Yun” are the interpretations of the early-established Lingwen, and the word “true record” in these two items is not the name of the historical style, but should mean “documentary direct record”. Such as Yang Xiong’s “Fayan Zhongli”: “Or ask “Zhou Guan”. Said: ‘Li Shi.’ “Zuo Shi”. Said: ‘Pinzao.” Taishi Qian’. Said: ‘Recorded. ‘” However, what “Zhu Yun” said should come from the setting of historians in the Tang Dynasty. “The Six Classics of the Tang Dynasty” Volume 9 “Historical Officials of the History Museum” contains: “The historians are in charge of cultivating the history of the country; they are not falsely beautiful, do not hide evil, and directly write down their affairs. Wherever the auspiciousness of the heaven, the earth, the sun and the moon, the division of mountains and rivers, the order of the succession of Zhao Mu. , the travels of the rites and musicians, the government of punishing, rewarding, abolishing, and rejuvenating; all of them were originally recorded in the daily life and recorded as an actual record, and then the form of the chronology was established as a praise or criticism.”

The stipulation of “the best of literature and history” in the “Kao Ke Ling” is also directly derived from the Tang Ling. There are reasons to believe that the historians under the Ling system should have a certain understanding of the compilation of the Tang Dynasty records, so “Xue Ji” (an annotation to the Lingwen of the Mingfa family’s Xutai Neiren in the 9th century) clearly stated that the history of the country “if the record is something like that”. Ikeda Wen pointed out that the three-stage history revision system of “living notes – memoirs – national history” formed in the Tang Dynasty was accepted by Japan in the form of a unified “national history”. “Shu Ji” first compiled the records of each emperor in a chronological style, and then went to Tianwu and Chitong two records, and then learned the style of the Tang Dynasty’s record, and added the resume text in the death note of the ministers, and finally formed the “death of the emperor” in the following national histories. Posthumous”. When this trend of change is included in the long-term development of the entire East Asia, we will find that this chronicle is gradually “recorded”, which is actually a microcosm of the changes in Chinese historiography fed back to Japan from the 4th to 7th centuries.

For the historical changes in China from the 4th to the 7th century, that is, during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, predecessors have pointed out that the key opportunity lies in the separation of classics and historiography. Hu Baoguo emphasized that the study of classics in the Han Dynasty occupied a dominant position in academics, and historiography was only a vassal of the study of classics at that time. Based on “Seven Strategies” written by Liu Xiang and Liu Xin’s father and son, “Hanshu·Yiwenzhi” puts all historical books such as “Guoyu”, “World Edition”, “Warring States Policy”, and “Historical Records” into the “Spring and Autumn Period” family. The concept of “History Department” does not yet exist in the catalogue of books. By the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the study of ancient texts had developed, and this school opposed the small words and great meanings of the previous studies of modern texts, and emphasized the research and supplementation of facts. In fact, it has many similarities with historiography. Driven by the study of ancient literature and classics, the focus of historiography has shifted from examining ancient history to writing contemporary history, and further catalyzed the independence of historiography. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the entire Confucian thought was forced to retreat due to the crisis of reality, which led to the opportunity for independent development of various schools of thought and literature that were originally shrouded in Confucianism, such as Jian’an literature and Wei and Jin metaphysics. product below. Lu Yaodong proposed in this regard that under this background, the literati in the Wei and Jin dynasties gradually awakened their personal consciousness. After individuals under the constraints of Confucian moral norms were liberated from their emotional and personality, they incorporated materials that were previously insufficient for Confucianism into historical interpretations. This also led to the expansion of the selection and citation scope of historical materials. After breaking away from the traditional constraints, the three people began to re-examine and reflect on the old theories, and finally liberated themselves from the traditional constraints, which formed the ideological foundation for Wei and Jin historiography to be independent from the classics.

The most representative example of the absorption and acceptance of Wei and Jin historiographical achievements in “Shu Ji” is the compilation of the first and second volumes, that is, “Shendai Ji”. These two volumes were formed relatively early, and the style is also different from other parts. When the “Shu Ji” was compiled, the history compilation team had already made an annotation, which was attached to the text, and started with “Yi Shu Yue”, so Xi called it “Yi Shu”. The “Book of the Gods” contains a large number of records that are different from the main text, some of which are only textual discrepancies, but more are completely new storylines. Regarding the purpose of compiling the “One Book”, there was a note in the “One Book” in the March article of the second year of Emperor Mingming’s reign (about 541) in the Book of Books: “The Emperor’s Book of Records has many ancient characters. Changes to change. Later generations study and read, and change it with intentions. Since there are too many biographies and writings, they have become miscellaneous. They have missed the times before and after, and the brothers are mixed. Now, we will examine the ancient and modern, and return to the real. And the notes are different. He all follows this.” Ota Jingerang pointed out that this paragraph directly used the “narrative examples” of “Han Shu” annotated by Yan Shigu in the early Tang Dynasty, and actually played the role of “one book” here. the utility. In the preface to the “Hongren Private Records”, which was formed a hundred years after the “Book of the Book” was written, it was pointed out that “the Book of the Book” contains “heretic novels, strange and confusing, and it should be written for the sake of more knowledge”. It is heresy, irony and proverbs are fiction.” This is also the interpretation of the core purpose of the compilation of “One Book”. On this basis, Ota believes that the appearance of “One Book” may have been influenced by the historical style of the early Tang Dynasty represented by Yan Shigu.

However, if one observes the annotations of the “Shu Ji” by the standard of “Yi Shu”, one will find that there are very obvious differences between the Shendai scroll and the later texts. Since the “Shenwu Emperor Ji”, the annotations are mostly “this cloud” with the pronunciation and the examination school indicating the difference between the versions, but the “one book” in the “Shendai Ji” is more of a collection of historical materials that “annotate the differences” , which is actually the same as Pei Songzhi’s commentary on Chen Shou’s “Three Kingdoms” in the Southern Song Dynasty. Harumi Fujiwara, a scholar who was in charge of lecturing and reading the “Shoki” during the Emperor Daigo’s Enki period (901-923), noticed the relationship between the two: “In the ancient times, there were quite a few ancient books written by the family of good things. At the time of the book (“Shoji”), although it was not used completely, it could not be discarded, and it was still loaded. It is also an annotation of Pei Songzhi’s “Records of the Three Kingdoms”.” A noble scholar of the Muromachi period, Ichimonoka agreed with this point of view, and pointed out that : “This book is annotated, a book, or so on. It is not an annotation at all. It is just a miscellaneous record. The things of the ancient times of Gai Xuan are not personally heard and seen, but they are taught from ten mouths, and it is unknown who is right and wrong. The righteousness of its use and abandonment will be regarded as a gentleman in later generations.” These viewpoints are actually derived from what Pei Shi said in the “Notes on the Records of the Three Kingdoms”: “If his longevity is not recorded, if the matters are recorded, it will not be taken completely. In order to make up for their shortcomings. Either the same thing is said and the words are mixed, or the incident is fundamentally different, and it is suspected that it cannot be judged, and they are all copied to prepare for the strange news.” It can be seen that in the ancient people’s understanding, “Shendai Ji” “Yi Shu” and Pei The close connection between the notes. During the Northern Dynasties, “Three Kingdoms” has been exported to neighboring countries. “Book of Zhou·Korai Biography” contains: “Books include “Five Classics”, “Three Histories”, “Three Kingdoms” and “Jinyang Qiu”. In “Shen Gong Empress Ji” there was a side note citing “Three Kingdoms: Wei Zhi”, and the “Book of Records” also used the historical materials cited by Pei Zhu to polish it many times. From this, it can be concluded that the “Shu Ji” has been compiled with reference to the “Three Kingdoms” with Pei’s annotations, and has a certain grasp of its special annotation style. ” is a special form of comment that is assembled.

In recent years, Enomoto Fukushou tried to explain the reason why the “Kindaiji” was written in the form of a Pei annotation of the “Three Kingdoms”. He pointed out that the “Kindaiki” took the “benbiography” as the key link, and connected different historical accounts in the form of “one book”. After the “Book”, it was hoped that by creating differences in historical records, the “Book” could be passed down as the official discourse system. Enomoto’s interpretation is based on the compilation logic of “Shoki” itself, which is quite valuable for reference. But from the perspective of historiography, what deserves more attention is the difference between Pei Annotation itself and other medieval history books. Since ancient times, many scholars have talked about this point. Li Ciming of the Qing Dynasty once said: “Pei Songzhi’s annotations are rich in different opinions, and he has a lot of compromises. He is the best in all historical books, and there are very few annotations.” In addition, most of the annotators of history books before and after are actually mostly “primary school” skills of “researching on exegesis and citing facts”. Such as Ying Shao’s collection of “Han Shu” at the end of the Han Dynasty, the “Historical Records Collection” annotated by Pei Song’s son Pei Cong, Yan Shigu’s annotations to “Han Shu”, and Zhanghuai Prince Li Xian’s annotations to “Han Han Shu”. On the contrary, Pei Songzhi’s notes are seldom of this kind, and instead focus on the supplementation and research of historical facts. For a long time, the evaluation of Pei Zhu has been mixed. Liu Zhiji commented that he “likes to gather similarities and differences, does not add additional publications, and makes it difficult to attack, and sits long and troublesome”; although “Siku Abstract” ridicules him for “loving strange things and blogging, it hurts and miscellaneous”, but admits that he “snarls”. prosperous”. As for Pei Songyi’s previous annotation method of “annotating famous objects and expounding the meaning of text”, the reason why he chose to cite various historical records for annotation is closely related to the background of “the difference between classics and history” in the Southern and Northern Dynasties. Lu Yaodong pointed out that the fundamental difference between the traditional commentary on history books and the Pei commentary is that one is a “jing commentary” and the other is a “historical commentary”. The key to an important shift in the process of dividing history”. Hu Baoguo paid attention to Pei Songzhi’s Southern Dynasty, in the process of historiography gradually separating from classics, and gradually got rid of the vassal status of classics, and at the same time there was an atmosphere of attaching importance to “things” and knowledge. Pei Songzhi clearly stated that the main purpose of his annotations on the “Three Kingdoms” was to “serve Zhou Xing”. It reflects the development trend of historiography in this period from “attached to the classics” to “secondary to the classics”.

In addition, Hu Baoguo pointed out that this feature of annotating a single book with multiple history books is based on the increase in the number of history books since the end of the Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties. The great split in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties caused the government to lose effective control over the compilation of historical records. It is precisely because of the existence of so many bibliographies that Pei Songzhi has enough material to annotate and supplement the “Three Kingdoms”, which is “lost in ignorance”. Recognizing this point, it is easy to understand the subjective and objective conditions for the existence of “One Book”. In the communication with China and the Korean peninsula, the editors of “Shu Ji” actually vaguely realized the uniqueness of historiography which is independent from the study of classics. Behind the coexistence of “writing” and “annotating the differences” is the purpose of the editors to “assess the past and present, and return them to the truth”. The objective condition that “there are only a few books of ancient sayings written by the family of good things” has become the objective factor for the formation of many books in “Shendai Ji”. However, unlike Pei’s annotations, the annotations to “Shendai Ji” only stated that “one book said” and did not include the bibliography of the dictionaries, which should also be because many historical texts were lost and could only be recorded in the form of oral transmission. Incidents such as the burning of historical books in Suwa and Ezo during the Otsumi Rebellion and the loss of historical materials in the Omi court during the Renshen Rebellion all brought difficulties to the compilation of the Book of Records. However, at the same time, the imperial court used the compilation of historical books to use the “different” to match the “one”, and built a complete mythology through the “Shendai Ji”. The number of “one books” in the second half of “Shu Ji” has been significantly reduced, which also confirms from the side that the imperial court gradually monopolized the process of historical data recording and historical book compilation.

From the perspective of the whole style, the particularity of the “Kindaiji” is not only in the large number of “one books”, it is completely different from the subsequent “Emperor Ji”. Since the “Shenwu Emperor Ji”, each volume has been in the genre of “the pre-enthronement period + the emperor’s (era name) chronicle narrative” with the master as the core. This is basically consistent with the current records in the official history of China and the records compiled by the imperial court. However, the description style of inserting two volumes of “Shendai Ji” at the beginning of the history book can be said to be completely different from the existing official history of the East Asian countries. Even if the first chapter of the “Historical Records”, “The Chronicle of Five Emperors”, describes the rulers with a semi-legendary character in ancient times, they still follow the style of this century of the official history, with the ruler as the core, narrating their family background and actions. The feature of “Kindaiji” is that it does not focus on people (gods), but narrates the myths from the creation of heaven and earth to the birth of gods and the formation of all things. This style can be said to be the characteristic of “Shoji”. Hiroshi Hosui paid attention to the appearance of “Kojiki” and “Shoji” in the mythological narrative from the creation of the gods to the ancient emperor’s unification of the “Great Eight Continents”. It is pointed out that the characteristic of “Records of Ancient Events” is that it does not adopt different opinions, and only focuses on the narrative of “the gods-the emperor”. Relatively speaking, the “Book of Records” is widely different, and incorporates the inheritance of the noble clans that make up the legal state into the official historical records. It can be seen that Japan had not yet established a highly centralized imperial power when the “Shoji” was written. The reality that the emperor and the nobles jointly held power made the imperial court, while constructing the legitimacy of the rule, also need to take into account the construction of the common historical memory and inheritance with the nobles. where.

However, in the process of compiling the Shuji, the Japanese court was inevitably influenced by China’s mature historiography. Going back to the development of heaven and earth, the way in which the gods were born is closely related to the style of “repairing history” during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. Sima Qian wrote one hundred and thirty chapters of the “Historical Records”, headed by “The Chronicles of the Five Emperors”. According to the “Tai Shigong Said” at the end of the volume, “The Book of Documents alone records the time since Yao, while a hundred schools of thought say that the Yellow Emperor is indecent and docile, and it is difficult to recommend Mr. Shen.” Therefore, it is the first book of the Chronicle.” Sima Zhen of the Tang Dynasty supplemented “The Chronicles of the Three Sovereigns”, and noted at the beginning of the chapter: “Today, the three emperors of the Que are led by the five emperors, and the chapter “The Virtues of the Five Emperors” is based on the “Da Dai Li”, and the emperors are all described since the Yellow Emperor Therefore, the “Five Emperors” is the first. In fact, the three emperors have already returned, and the records are rare.” Then, Sima Qian wrote the “Twelve Chronicles”, which is based on the “Emperor’s line” and the emperor’s lineage, and also because of the history before the Five Emperors. “The records are rare”, so the chapter begins with the Five Emperors. Going back to the whole period of the Han and Han Dynasties, there are few historians who trace the origin of human life to the ancient times and make continuous additions to the ancient history.

However, when Sima Zhen stated the reason for adding the “Three Emperors” in the first note of the article, he wrote that “the rulers and ministers of ancient and modern times should be opened up from the top, and down to the present, as the head and tail of the family”, so “the beginning of the monarch and the ministers, the first to be educated. , in terms of ancient history, it does not fit into the whole Que.” He mentioned that before this, there were “The Chronicles of Emperors and Emperors” written by Huangfu Mi in modern times and “Three and Five Calendars” written by Xu Zheng, and these works “all discuss the past events of the Three Emperors”. Huangfu Mi’s “Emperor’s Century” in the Western Jin Dynasty and Sun Wu Xuzhen’s “Three and Five Calendars” have long since been lost, and only the edited version remains. But judging from the existing content, it mainly describes the historical events since the beginning of the division of heaven and earth and the reign of the Three Emperors. Not only these two people, but also the 4 volumes of “Dong Ji” written by Sun Wu Weizhao in “Sui Shu·Jing Ji Zhi”, “Recording the arrival of Paosi, and the twenty-seventh year of Jian’an in the Han Dynasty”; Liu Songji Wenfu’s “Ten “Five Dynasties”, vol. 10, “From Pao to sacrifice, to Jin”. The style of general history is not only spread in private history books, but also affects the official history revision behavior. For example, Emperor Wu of Liang Xiao Yan ordered Wu Jun to write the “General History”, “from the three emperors, to the end of the Qi Dynasty”. During this period, many historians tried to re-interpret and interpret the ancient history, which led to the rise of a trend of “general history” from the Three Emperors to the present. Tokawa Yoshiro pointed out that this trend of compiling “general history” in the Wei, Jin and Six Dynasties was actually closely related to the development of the historical view of Confucian classics since the Eastern Han Dynasty. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Xun Yue was ordered by Emperor Xian of Han to omit the “Han Shu” according to the chronological style of “Zuo Zhuan” and adapt it into 30 volumes of “Han Ji”. Although this book is a chronology of chronology, it actually set a precedent for the “general history” chronicled by emperors. During the Western Jin Dynasty, the “Bamboo Book Chronicle” was unearthed, which quickly attracted the attention of the academic circles. Du Yu commented in the preface to “The Collection of the Spring and Autumn Classics”: “The text and meaning of his writing is similar to the “Spring and Autumn” classics, which shows that the ancients’ national history strategy books are often used.” With this opportunity, the historians of the Jin Dynasty began to Noticing the consistency between the chronicle style and the scripture style, he gradually formed a “view of the history of the study of the classics”. Tokawa pointed out that the core of the “concept of history in the study of classics” is to incorporate the beginning of history into the “diji”, combining the classical theory of cosmogony with the reign of emperors, and by depicting the root state of mankind, The universe is combined with people, and through the chronology and calendar operation of the latitude book, the historical view of the ethical country is formed.

Looking back at the “Shendai Ji” from this perspective, we can understand the emergence of this special style. The beginning of the “Shendai Ji” records: “The ancient world was not divided, and Yin and Yang were not distinguished. The clear yang is thin and sluggish and becomes the sky, and the heavy turbidity is submerged and stagnant and becomes the earth. The subtle combination is easy, and the heavy turbidity is difficult to condense. Therefore, the heaven is formed first and the earth is settled later, and then the divine is born in it.” Previous academic circles Most of them only pay attention to the citation relationship between this passage and “Huainanzi·Tianxun”, but Tokawa clearly pointed out that this passage of the formation of heaven and earth is a common example of “general history” writings in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. For example, it is said in the “Three Five Calendars”: “When there was no heaven and earth, chaos was like a chicken, and the teeth began to grow.

Heaven and earth are not divided, it is too easy. Vitality begins to sprout, which is called the beginning of time. The beginning of the Qi-shape is called Tai Beginning. Deformation has quality, which is called too prime. Before Taisu, it was quiet and lonely. It cannot be an image, it is nothing but nothing. Build the root of the Tao, and build the Tao. Still nothing is born, too quality begins to sprout. Cute but not foreshadowing, it is called Pang Hong. The dryness of building the Tao is to nurture all things into beings. So the hardness and softness begin to be divided, and the turbidity begins to be in place. Heaven is formed on the outside and the body is yang, so it is round to move, covering the reality of the Tao, and the quality and shape are already established, which is called Taiji.

To sum up, the “Shu Ji” puts “Shendai Ji” at the beginning of the chapter, which is actually imitating the “general history” of the Wei, Jin and Six Dynasties, with the style of “opening up from the top, and ending the contemporary, thinking that the family is the beginning and the end”. compiled. Many of the “one books” preserved in it can actually be seen to have been influenced by the trend of “noting history with facts” represented by Pei Songzhi. It can be said that the compilation of “Shu Ji” has left a profound imprint on the historiography of the Wei, Jin and Six Dynasties.

For the related research on the history of Wei, Jin and Six Dynasties, it can be said that it is already a lot of work. Zhou Liang was the first to pay attention to the new development of historiography at this stage. Hu Baoguo further pointed out that the dispute between modern and ancient texts and classics since the Eastern Han Dynasty entered a new stage at the end of the Han Dynasty, and ancient texts and classics began to occupy a dominant position, which in turn further promoted the integration of modern and ancient texts. Scholars gradually got rid of the characteristics of the small words and the righteousness of modern classics, and re-recognized the attributes of “Spring and Autumn” and “Zuo Zhuan” as “history”, and started the process of “separation of classics and history”. After the Yongjia Rebellion, the “Historical View of Classics” established at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty was inherited by famous scholars from Heluo in Nandu, and became the origin of historiography in the Six Dynasties. Historians at this time “thought that the Spring and Autumn Annals were the orthodox records of ancient historical records, and that there were some writings, mostly based on the style of the Spring and Autumn Period”. Not only the style, but also the names of historical books are mostly named after “Spring (Yang) Autumn”, such as Sima Biao’s “Jiuzhou Spring and Autumn”, Sun Sheng’s “Wei’s Spring and Autumn”, “Jin Yang Autumn”, Xi Chiu Tooth “Han Jin Spring and Autumn”. Wait for the history books. This is actually the inheritance of the thought of ancient texts. Driven by this trend, Fang You’s “chronological body” flourished in the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Six Dynasties. Zhou Liang pointed out that the history of the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties has the characteristic of “two bodies in parallel” in chronicles, which was first summarized by Liu Zhiji. He compared the chronological style and the chronicle style in “Shitong Two Body”, and proposed: “Ban (Ban Gu’s “Han Shu”) and Xun (Xun Yue’s “Han Ji”) are two-bodied, and they are competing for the first place, and they want to abolish the other. It is also difficult to consolidate. Later, the author did not have a second way. Therefore, the history of Jin has Wang and Yu, and the subtitles “Qian Ji”; “Song Shu” has Xu and Shen, and they are divided into Pei’s “Lue”. Each has its own beauty. , in parallel with the world.”

During this period, historians were debating the merits of the two bodies. For example, Ganbao of the Eastern Jin Dynasty was not very fond of Sima Qian’s biography and history, but favored Zuo Zhuan, thinking that Zuo Qiuming “could cover the events of 240 years in thirty volumes, and there is a lot of legacy. also”. The “Jin Ji” written by him also followed Zuo Shi, trying his best to imitate his style of writing and narrating. However, Ganbao did not completely obey the Zuozhuan and did not make any changes. He added a part of the “Notes” to the “Jin Ji” to supplement the history of the courtier’s life, which greatly improved the genre structure of the chronicle. . Yuan Hong’s “Later Han Dynasty”, which was written slightly later than Ganbao’s “Jin Ji”, when dealing with important events such as ministers’ appointment, promotion, and death, he often recounted his life and even the deeds of his heirs. Jin Ji”‘s “notes” can be said to be exactly the same. Zhou Yiliang thought that this historical style, which was recorded in the chronicle, might have been used at that time. It was on the basis of the two books by Qian and Yuan that a new historical style—the record of “combining the methods of chronology and biography” was finally formed in the Liang Dynasty.

Judging from the existing historical records, Japan at that time had a certain understanding of the changes in the historical form produced in China. Although there is no dispute between modern and ancient literature and classics in Japan, the Southern Dynasties period was a period of frequent exchanges between East Asian countries. Junichi Enomoto noticed the various Liang Dynasty books recorded in the “Catalogue of Books on the State of Japan”, and pointed out that most of the Liang Dynasty books in this catalog had flowed into Japan before the envoys to the Sui and Tang Dynasty were dispatched. The use of Wu Yin to read Chinese books in Japan was infiltrated by the culture of the Southern Dynasty. Hanoi Chunren also pointed out that in East Asia before the 7th century, with the Liang Dynasty as the center, a “Southern Dynasty Cultural Circle” of “Liang-Baekje-Japanese” was formed through the Five Classics Doctors. Through this channel of academic communication, Japanese scholars should be able to read the history books at that time and have a preliminary grasp of the maturing historiography at that time. In fact, the “Shu Ji” lecturer in the Yanxi period discussed the style selection of “Shu Ji” from this perspective:

He also asked: “The Book of the Later Han” is different from the biography of the Emperor’s Chronicle. It still talks about the affairs of the emperor, which is called the Book of Records. Reciting the affairs of the ministers is called a biography of books. And the author of this book, not the biography of Emperor Ji, is only called “Book of Records”, how?

Answer: The teacher said: Although this book has no biography, it is still called the “Book of Records”. However, those who are accustomed to the “Liang Dian”, “Qi Chunqiu”, “Tang Li” and other disciplines enter into it, which can be said to be according to the “Later Han Dynasty”.

The “Liang Dian” (written by Nan Chen He Zhiyuan), “Qi Chunqiu” (written by Nan Liang Wu Jun), and “Tang Li” (written by Tang Liufang) mentioned here are all included in the “Japanese State Sees in the Book Catalog” , are well-reviewed chronicle books. The lecturers of the Heian period noticed that the “body” of these history books was learned from the “Shoji”, “and also notes the affairs of emperors, monarchs and ministers”. Among them, “Tang Li” was compiled in the Daizong Dynasty, far after the “Book of Records” was written. However, “Liang Dian” and “Qi Chunqiu” are historical records of the Southern Dynasties, and it is very likely that they were introduced to Japan in the early days. In the second half of the “Book of Records”, especially in the Tianwu and Chitong Second Chronicles compiled after the formation of the Statute of Law, the chronicle of the death of the dead that appeared widely, was accepted by Japan when the “chronology and biography” style was transitioning to the true record. The embodiment of this “deceased soldier” has continued to the first half of “Su Ji”. “Japan Post Chronicle” extends the sixteenth year of the calendar (797) on February 13, and it is mentioned in the “Continued Japanese Chronicle” by Kanno Shindo and others: “The first year of Emperor Wenwu (697), the first year of the year, Ding You, is full of treasures. In the first year of the character (757) Ding You, the total is 61 years, and all Cao’s cases are 30 volumes.” This part of the draft was written earlier and became the manuscript of the first 20 volumes of “Xu Ji”. Among them, the descriptions of the “Death of a Soldier” are also as brief as Tianwu Ji and Chitong Ji, and mainly focus on family background and official calendar. However, since “The Chronicles of Emperor Xiaoqian”, the content of “Records of Death” has become extremely rich and detailed, and the evaluation of characters has developed a very biographical element. The final formation of this change should be related to the large number of Chinese books that Jibei Zhenbei brought back to Japan during the Tianping Baozi period (757-765), especially the introduction of a large number of records in the Tang Dynasty. Taking this opportunity, the Japanese court was able to fully grasp the genre of the memoir and compile it based on it. The “Biography of the Death of the Death” developed from the “Records of the Death of the Death” can be considered to be the product of the history-editing team fully absorbing the elements of the Chinese record, and it has also become the standard format of the four national histories of future generations. It is through the digestion of Tang Shilu that the historical form of the “History of the Six Kingdoms” was gradually fixed.

It should be pointed out that with the relaxation of Sino-Japanese book exchanges in the 9th and 10th centuries, Japan’s absorption of China’s continuously developing historiography culture gradually stagnated, which directly led to a major differentiation of Chinese and Japanese historiography in the middle of the Heian period. This trend can also be seen from the compilation of the “Japanese Three Generations Records”. Judging from the categories in the “See in the Book Catalog”, the Tang Dynasty recorded in Japan is a whole “ninety volumes”, which may lead to Japan’s The concept of the record as “the history of a generation of emperors” has not been formed, so there is a special form such as “Japanese Three Generations Records” that puts the history of three generations of monarchs into one record. Kuroba Ryota further pointed out that the change from “this period” to “record” reflects the change in the positioning of “the history of the Six Kingdoms” from “compiling history books with the change of dynasties” to “compiling history books with the changes of dynasties”, reflecting the “history of the Six Kingdoms”. Japan’s deepening of its conscious awareness that it is “a country without dynastic changes”. From the content point of view, the “Three Generations Records” records the ceremonies, disasters and celebrations, and retains a large number of edicts. This in itself has highlighted the shift in the purpose of Japanese history building, that is, from recording history to recording “precedents”, turning history books into “instructions” for governance. The overall level of Chinese writing among Japanese aristocrats gradually declined after the middle of the Heian period, and word processing tasks such as document sorting and official document writing were monopolized by several scholars who took Chinese as their “family business”. The demand for and enthusiasm for historiography among the ruling classes has declined, which has led to higher-tech historiography giving way to low-level historiography. In contrast, the writing of biography itself began to be independent from the compilation of history books, and the climax of Chinese biography writing appeared in the ninth century. After the compilation of national history was stopped, the imperial court still compiled the “Aristocratic Archives” which recorded the personal resumes of ministers above Nayan. In this way, the biographies themselves were compiled into historical materials as the “archives” of the nobles and nobles, and finally the “Gongqing Supplement”, which records the changes of the nobles’ official calendars, was formed. “When the door is raised, it will be filthy, and the history of the political history will bring prosperity and decline. Talking about it is a collection of hands, in case of forgetting.” It can be seen that Japanese historiography in this period has given up the moral pursuit of the rise and fall of Chinese historiography, focusing on historical records. to serve the stagnant ruling order. The historical record system of the death of the dead was also inherited by the diaries written by the ministers as a family unit since the middle period of the Heian period. However, this “biography of the death of the dead” itself is not a historical body that has been developed, but is only a description of the diary owner full of personal emotions.

As the origin and core of the East Asian cultural circle, ancient China had a huge impact on the surrounding areas. Japan, living in a secluded island, absorbed and accepted this set of symbolic order, which was carried by Chinese characters and embodied in etiquette, books, and historical writing through maritime exchanges with China. As the first “National History” written in Japan, “Shoji” is of great significance to the Japanese court. The Japanese court used the compilation of “Shoji” to incorporate the legends and myths that have been passed down orally since ancient times into the framework of “history”, and constructed a common memory of the ruling class with the emperor as the core. On the other hand, the “Book of Records”, which is modeled on Chinese history books and written in Chinese, is naturally greatly influenced by China in its framework and historical style. However, what Japan has accepted is not only a few simple history books, but a Chinese historiography that is undergoing great changes. During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, historiography began to become independent from the study of classics. The academic circles of the Southern Dynasties inherited the thought of classical literature and classics, and began to attach importance to “Spring and Autumn” and “Zuo Zhuan” as the side of history books, which promoted the resurgence of the chronicle style. On this basis, historians represented by Ganbao and Yuan Hong tried to organically combine “chronology” and “chronic biography” to create a new type of historical form of “chronic biography”, which became the “record” in the future. Origin. On the other hand, the trend of “separation of classics and history” has also contributed to the formation of the view of history in the study of classics. Historians after the Jin Dynasty combined the classical theory of cosmogony with the reign of emperors. Combined, resulting in the writing of “general history” style in this period. The compilation process of “Shu Ji” was in the middle of such a major turning point. His writing and annotation techniques left a deep imprint on the history of Wei, Jin and Six Dynasties. The emergence of the prototype of “annual and biography” contrasts the development of a whole history of medieval China.

If you look at the whole of East Asia, it was during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties that the East Asian countries had their first peak of communication. The countries of the Korean peninsula and Japan are constantly at war with each other, and exchanges are extremely frequent. In order to compete for greater political interests, they successively dispatched envoys to mainland countries to request tribute. Driven by this trend, from the 5th to the 7th century, the new trend of historiography during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties gradually spread to the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago, and it was during this period that the history of the peninsula began to rise. Among them, Baekje was the first to have a clear history of revision records. The “Ancient Records” cited in “The History of the Three Kingdoms” mentioned that “Baekje’s founding of the country has come, but there is no written record”. “When the doctor is happy, there is a “secretary”.” Next is Silla, in the 6th year of King Zhenxing (545), in the autumn and seventh month, “Isham Yisifu said: ‘The history of the country, remember the good and evil of the ruler and the ministers, and show praise and derogation to all generations. If there is no compilation, what will the future generations think? ‘Wang Shenran, ordered the great Ahom to live in the 7th husband, etc., to gather scribes widely, and write them for them.” The time when Goguryeo officially compiled the history of the country is very vague, but it is basically clear that Goguryeo’s work on the history of the country has already existed. In the eleventh year of King Yingyang (600), Li Wenzhen, a doctor of Taixue, was ordered to delete and revise the ancient history and compiled it into 5 volumes of “New Collection”. It can be seen from this that the formation of the “Southern Dynasty Cultural Circle” enabled the new historiography in China’s autobiography to spread to the surrounding areas, and affected the formation of history books of East Asian countries.

In a word, the turning point of the historical genre before and after the “Shoji” is actually a reflection of the development and changes of the Chinese historiography genre in Japan during the period of “separation of classics and history”. However, this kind of direct input historiography has always been a bit of “bringing in”. Japan’s native historiography has never experienced a stage of development such as the “controversy of classics and history”, which established the status of historiography, and the ruling class itself did not have an urgent need to rely on the compilation of official historiography to emphasize the orthodoxy of ruling. As a result, it is not difficult to understand that the official history of Japan after the “History of the Six Kingdoms” is unsustainable and is replaced by the “Diary of a Minister”, which has degenerated to the nature of recording. However, unlike the “History of the Five Kingdoms” edited later, the “Shoji”, especially the “Kindaiji” itself, as the theoretical source of the legitimacy of the emperor’s rule, did not decline in importance in the Heian period. Studying and studying it has formed a huge commentary system. In the Middle Ages, Shintoists and monks continued to annotate the “Shoji” and integrated it with Buddhist classics through deconstruction to construct a system of “Middle Ages of Japan”, thus laying the foundation for the theory of Japan’s “View of the Kingdom of God”. Base. In this sense, the “Shoji”, which was compiled according to official procedures and based on the official history of China, has been given the status of a “classic” of Shintoism, which can also reflect from the side that the concept of local Japanese historiography is in the The unique trajectory of independent development after breaking away from Chinese influence.

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