The British Museum, established in the 18th century, has welcomed over 350 million visitors during the past three centuries. As the world’s inaugural national public museum, the British Museum preserves the reminiscences of civilizations worldwide, yet its evolution is intricately intertwined with the backdrop of warfare and colonial history.
In 1753, the British connoisseur Hans Sloane passed away, leaving behind a testament and bestowing innumerable treasures he had accumulated from across the globe to the nation. These treasures subsequently laid the foundation for the British Museum’s collection. On June 7, 1753, King George II of England granted his approval for the establishment of the British Museum. Eventually, the British Museum took shape within the premises of the Duke of Montagu’s House in London.
Over time, the British Museum amassed an ever-expanding assortment, intimately linked to the British policy of colonial expansion during that era. In 1763, Britain triumphed over France in the Seven Years’ War, asserting itself as the preeminent maritime power. Then, in 1815, Britain emerged victorious in the Napoleonic War, becoming the foremost global power of its time. The tale that once unfolded within the Temple of the Muses and the Louvre was now replicated within the British Museum. As Britain’s colonial footprint spanned the globe, treasures from diverse civilizations gradually found their way into the UK through various channels, ultimately finding a home in the British Museum.
Among these, the Rosetta Stone stands as perhaps the most renowned. In 1799, during Egypt’s brief occupation by Napoleonic forces, a French army captain unearthed the Rosetta Stone. In 1801, following their defeat at the hands of the British army, the French endeavored to clandestinely transport the Rosetta Stone back to their homeland. However, destiny intervened, and the stone fell into the possession of the British army, ultimately finding its place of exhibition within the Egyptian Hall of the British Museum. Another contentious and enduring artifact is the Parthenon’s stone carvings. Towards the close of the 18th century and the advent of the 19th century, the British diplomat Elgin procured a substantial number of stone sculptures from Greece’s Parthenon through various means, subsequently severing and transporting them to the UK. Eventually, these marble sculptures were sold to the British Museum. Through the years, Greece has consistently implored Britain to return the Parthenon sculptures.
In order to accommodate the burgeoning collection of the museum, in the 1880s, the British Museum’s natural history assortment was relocated to a new edifice in South Kensington, London, which would later become the esteemed Natural History Museum.
During the 19th century, as academic research continued, museum administrators endeavored to enhance the appeal of the institution by offering lectures, refining exhibits, and incorporating captivating mottos alongside the collections.
In the 20th century, the British Museum experienced rapid development in its public services. The first museum guide was published in 1903, and the inaugural docent was appointed in 1911. By the 1970s, the British Museum renovated its art galleries, established educational services, and established a publishing house. In the early 21st century, the museum persistently expanded its public edifices.
As a world-class comprehensive museum, the British Museum’s immensely diverse collections themselves represent an immense trove for scholarly exploration. Consequently, the British Museum distinguishes itself from conventional museums as not only a repository but also a research institution. It serves as a workplace for scholars from across the globe, and the museum even possesses its own journal.
However, presently, the British Museum confronts a multitude of controversies, with its passive stance on repatriating cultural artifacts repeatedly drawing criticism. In response to protests from the countries of origin and impassioned activists, the British Museum has previously retorted: “If every cultural artifact were to be returned to its original location, all of the eminent museums across the world, including the British Museum, would be left bereft.”