In recent years, with the rapid development of science and technology, robotic surgery has become an innovative technology in the medical field.
If you walk into a robotic operating room, you will find that the doctor who should be standing at the operating table is sitting at a console that looks like a large game console. Under the control of the doctor, the robot arm on the operating table can flexibly complete various operations and finally complete the surgical treatment. The robot arm is equipped with an ultra-high-definition lens and camera system, which can magnify the surgical operation site several times, so that blood vessels and nerves with a diameter of several millimeters can be clearly displayed in the doctor’s field of vision in real time.
Robotic surgery is not a robot that replaces a doctor to perform surgery, but an advanced technology in which a robot system assists a doctor in surgery. Robotic surgery requires highly trained and experienced surgeons and surgical teams to ensure successful surgery and patient safety.
How do robots do surgery
1. After the patient enters the operating room, the doctor places the robotic surgical operating system next to the patient, and then connects the console of the robotic surgical instrument to the robotic surgical instrument.
2. The doctor places the robotic surgical instruments precisely on the surgical target site through the console.
3. The robot vision system transmits the three-dimensional image of the surgical site to the console, and the doctor can clearly observe the surgical site through the console.
4. The doctor controls the robotic surgical instruments to complete the surgical operation through the console.
5. After the operation is completed, the robotic surgical instruments are taken out, and the patient is pushed out of the operating room to continue postoperative observation and treatment.
What’s so good about robotic surgery?
Robotic surgery has several advantages over traditional open surgery.
One is that the patient recovers quickly. Taking lung surgery as an example, in traditional thoracotomy, patients usually stay in hospital for as long as 2 to 3 weeks after surgery, while with robotic lung surgery, the vast majority of patients can reach the standard of discharge within 3 to 4 days after surgery.
Second, the surgical risk is low. Compared with traditional open surgery, robotic surgery is more minimally invasive, reducing the size and number of surgical wounds, reducing the chance of bacteria entering the incision, and naturally reducing the risk of wound infection. Robotic surgery is more precise, and the probability of accidental injury during surgery is lower. In operations of the same difficulty, robotic surgery usually takes less time, reducing the time the patient is exposed to the operating room environment during the operation and reducing the risk of infection.
The third is to be more “friendly” to doctors. In robotic surgery, the chief surgeon operates on an operating table away from the patient, and the robotic arm is in direct contact with the patient, so the doctor can avoid direct contact with the patient. Sometimes, doctors need to operate on patients infected with hepatitis B virus and HIV virus. At this time, they also face the risk of infection caused by occupational exposure. In this case, the advantages of remote control of robotic surgery are particularly obvious.
Traditional surgical methods require the surgeon to directly control the surgical instruments, and the fatigue of the surgeon will directly affect the accuracy and stability of the operation. Robotic surgery can greatly reduce the physical energy consumption of the doctor. In addition, the operational stability of the device will be significantly better than that of humans, and stability is often critical when doctors face delicate anatomy and high-risk surgery. Thus, robotic surgery can provide more precise surgery and reduce errors and risks during surgery.
Fourth, there is the potential for remote control. With the continuous development of communication systems, the potential of remote operation of robotic surgery will gradually become apparent.
Taking lung cancer surgery as an example, surgical resection is one of the main methods for the treatment of lung cancer. Among the surgical methods, thoracoscopic surgery is currently the mainstream surgical method, but compared with robotic surgery, it still has certain limitations.
Thoracoscopic surgery is limited by the operating angle of surgical instruments, making fine manipulation difficult. Robotic surgery, on the other hand, allows for more delicate operations. In terms of visibility, thoracoscopic surgery is mainly based on two-dimensional imaging systems, and 3D endoscopic systems require special glasses. The visual fatigue of doctors who operate for a long time is obvious. In addition, the laparoscope is controlled by an assistant. If the cooperation is not good, the viewing angle of the laparoscope is difficult to adjust in time according to the requirements of the surgeon. The robotic surgical site can be presented through high-definition three-dimensional images, and the surgical perspective is controlled by the surgeon, making adjustments timely and convenient. In terms of safety, with the improvement of flexibility and visibility of robotic surgical instruments, it will be safer than thoracoscopic surgery.
Robotic surgery is not without its drawbacks
Disadvantage 1. The cost of the robotic surgery operating system is very high, which raises the treatment cost of robotic surgery, which limits its wide application.
Disadvantage 2: Robotic surgery requires experienced surgeons and a complete medical care team to provide support. Robotic surgery requires higher talent reserves in hospitals and collaboration capabilities of the medical team.
Disadvantage Three Robotic surgery also has some unique risks, such as system failure and program errors. While robotic systems are rigorously tested and calibrated prior to surgery, failures can occur, no matter how advanced the technology. If a robotic system malfunctions, operators need to take immediate action to ensure patient safety.
Who is suitable for robotic surgery
Robotic surgery technology is widely used in thoracic, neurological, urinary, gastrointestinal, obstetrics and other clinical fields. For example, a robotic surgical arm can perform operations on the lungs, mediastinum, esophagus, and more without opening the chest cavity. Robotic surgery is also suitable for more complex operations, such as tumor resection and organ transplantation. In other words, patients who need minimally invasive surgery and patients who need complex surgery can choose this technology.
The Future of Robotic Surgery
Higher precision and less invasive
As technology develops, robotic surgery will become more precise to reduce surgical errors and risks. At the same time, robotic surgery will pay more attention to reducing the invasiveness of surgery and minimizing the damage during surgery.
More intelligent and automated
With the continuous development of robotics and artificial intelligence, robotic surgery will become more intelligent to reduce the adverse effects of human factors. At the same time, robotic surgery will be more automated, reducing the burden on surgeons and improving surgical efficiency.
More diverse and personalized
In the future robot surgery is expected to carry out personalized surgical plan design for different diseases and patients, and improve the effect and quality of surgery.
Overall, robotic surgery will have a profound impact on surgical procedures, making them safer and more comfortable.