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Russian musician Anton Rubinstein

  In September 1862, Russia’s first music academy, the Petersburg Academy of Music, was grandly opened in Petersburg. Its founder, the outstanding Russian pianist, composer, conductor and music social activist Anton Grigorievich Rubinstein, served as the first director. A group of outstanding Russian composers and singers represented by Tchaikovsky came from the earliest and most prestigious music school in Russia under the leadership of the Rubinstein brothers. This is enough to show Rubinstein’s great contribution to Russian music and even the world music scene.
  Due to the formal and systematic music teaching program and rigorous teaching methods of the Conservatory of Music, it is inevitable that there are old and conservative disadvantages to some extent, especially the lack of understanding that Russian music should have its own unique national character, which leads to the famous Literary critic Stasov and composers, music critic Serov and the Russian new music genre “power group” composed of mostly self-taught composers, the first to bear the brunt is naturally the first Russian music academy student. Dean Anton Rubinstein. These irrational practices not only hurt the outstanding music educator Anton Rubinstein, but also regrettably brought a certain degree of negative impact on music education in Russia.
  This year marks the 180th anniversary of the birth of Anton Rubinstein. Based on the “Encyclopedia of Music” published by the former Soviet Union and other relevant documents, the author writes this
  article to commemorate Rubinstein’s great contribution to the world of music and art.   In November 1829
  
, the future musician Anton Rubinstein was born to a well-off Jewish merchant family in the village of Vikhvazinec in the Rebnica district of Moldavia.
  
He moved to Moscow with his parents when he was three years old. He started piano lessons with his mother when he was five years old. When he was seven years old, he studied with the best piano teacher at the time, the French Virouan. At the age of nine, he performed on stage in Moscow. From 1840 to 1843, accompanied by teachers, he toured some big cities in Western Europe, and after returning home he performed in Moscow and Petersburg. Viluan’s years of education and care for Rubinstein benefited the young Anton a lot, and Anton Rubinstein also believed that the deep foundation of his music art benefited from this French teacher. Of course, Veluen is also famous in the world music scene for having disciples like the Rubinstein brothers.
  From 1844 to 1846, his mother and two children lived abroad. Anton studied composition in Berlin with German music theorist and educator Dehn, and at the same time met Mendelssohn. Although the dating time was not long, Mendelssohn had a great influence on the growth of the young Rubinstein’s future creation.
  From 1848 to 1854, Rubinstein also got acquainted with the famous writer and music critic Vladimir Odoyevsky, cellist and one of the founders of the Russian Music Society Matvey Vierigorsky, The great composers Glinka and Dalgomeisky, the great Hungarian composer and pianist Liszt, also met the great writer Turgenev in the 1960s, Turgenev’s French close friend, and the mezzo-soprano Vial Do-Garcia and the French composer Berlioz, the German composer Schumann, the Danish composer, the director of the Copenhagen Conservatory of Music, and the French painter Dore (author of “Don Quixote” illustrations), etc.
  
  Achievement
  
  Rubinstein ‘s greatest contribution is his music education. As for the achievement of music and art, the first is the piano performance, and the second is the composition. His achievements in this respect are remarkable. He wrote 15 operas, 5 religious operas and a cappella in his lifetime. Plays, 6 symphonies, 20 chamber pieces, more than 200 piano pieces, and 160 various songs. His most important works are the oratorio “Paradise Lost”, the orchestral music and painting “Ivan the Terrible”, the opera “The Devil”, “Theatrical Symphony” (the Fourth Symphony), “Nero”, “Russia” Symphony” (ie “Fifth Symphony”) and so on. Rubinstein’s composing road was bumpy, with setbacks and failures. His first opera, “The Battle of Kulikovo” (also known as “Dmitry Donskoy”), was written in 1850, describing the 14th century Moscow Grand Duke Dmitry’s defeat by the Mongol-Tatar army invasion. A battle of , is a shocking opera, but the performance was unsuccessful.
  Although Anton Rubinstein was not the top composer in the 19th century, he also left many excellent works for the world. In addition to operas, there are also pieces for strings, concertos, symphonies, songs, romances, chamber music ensembles and, especially, piano pieces. Therefore, Anle Rubinstein can also be called an outstanding composer. The distinguishing feature of his work is the extensive use of tunes from Russian urban folk compositions, while borrowing from the fixed formulas of foreign music, thus determining the ambivalence in his musical heritage: excellence with the mundane, distinct personality and unique style with the eclectic method. Boris Asafiev, a famous Soviet musicologist, academician of the Academy of Sciences, and founder of musicology, pointed out in his comments: “He enthusiastically tried to express his opinions in various forms, but he lacked in developing the material. The quality of careful thinking.” Rubinstein’s works inevitably meet each other’s flaws, but after all, the flaws do not hide the flaws. His creations have pointed out the way for up-and-coming musicians and even those who are better than him, so that they can get useful enlightenment from them. For example, his lyrical opera “Devil” is a work of high artistic level. It is famous for its delicate and moving characters. The depiction of characters in Tchaikovsky’s operas inherits the characteristics of his teacher’s “Devil”. Rubinstein’s unique style in the opera “Devil” is eye-catching: the majestic, sound-shaking sections and the delicate and touching lyrical sections go hand in hand and complement each other. Another example is Rubinstein’s early symphony works, which played a historic role in the settlement of the classical symphonic suites in Russia. At the same time, in these symphonies, Rubinstein demonstrated how ingeniously the theme material of the Russian secular romantic tune is the keynote. The unfolding approach, which has benefited rising star composers. Asafiev pointed out in this regard: “In the 1970s, Tchaikovsky not only quickly understood the form of the teacher’s symphony art, but also mastered the symphony method, so he was better than the blue and surpassed his own. teacher.”
  Undoubtedly, Anton Rubinstein’s greatest contribution as a musician is his piano artistic achievement. In the 19th century, Liszt, the world’s top Hungarian pianist, was known as the greatest pianist in the first half of the 19th century, while Rubinstein was recognized as the greatest pianist in the second half of the 19th century. In his bold and often unconventional artistic treatment, he clearly shows the complex and contradictory but sincere personality characteristics, and his playing style is bold and eloquent. In his later years, people often felt that his violin voice exuded tension and drama. In his popular repertoire, works by Beethoven, Chopin and Schumann dominate. When he plays the works of the masters, he always interprets the ideas of the masters faithfully, and at the same time boldly and arbitrarily creates his own various playing methods, and affirms that the actors have their own independent sense of innovation. A characteristic feature of Rubinstein’s acting is his ebullient improvisation: usually the basic idea of ​​the original work is kept, but every time it is played, this idea is enhanced by sudden and brilliant play. Sometimes details are discarded for the completeness of the music picture. His various piano skills are completely subordinate to his own thoughts and feelings, so it is difficult for people to notice his superb skills in his early years or his individual deficiencies in his later years. One of the most outstanding aspects of Rubinstein’s craft is his mastery of the tone and dynamics of music. In a word, Rubinstein’s piano art had a historical impact on the growth of several generations of performers at home and abroad.
  
  Contribution
  
  Anton Rubinstein’s life spanned 65 years. From his 10-year-old official stage performance until his death in November 1894, he held a concert. He devoted himself to the music career for 55 years. His diligence and dedication The spirit of his is an important reason for his world-renowned music scene. In addition to frequent performances in various parts of the country when he was alive, from 1847 onwards, he also often traveled to European countries and even the United States to tour.
  As early as 1852, the 23-year-old Rubinstein drew up a plan to establish a conservatory in Petersburg, but it was not adopted by the authorities. In 1858, Rubinstein single-handedly founded the Vocal Academy, and in January 1859, he established the Russian Music Association under his advocacy, and he was one of the earliest directors of the association. In March 1860, he founded a music study class under the Russian Music Association, and then sent a letter to the Minister of National Education to apply for the establishment of a music school. In 1861, he wrote “On the Music of Russia”, which was published in the first issue of the “Century” magazine. In the article he called for the establishment of a Russian vocational music school. In October 1862, the Petersburg Conservatory of Music, which was established under his initiative, officially opened. He took office as the first dean and directly directed the chorus, orchestral piano ensemble classes and orchestration classes. Later, due to conflicts with the powerful, he resigned from the post of director of the Conservatory of Music and the Russian Music Association and went abroad. In 1887, he returned to the Petersburg Academy of Music as the dean and presided over the piano class, giving a lecture on the history of piano music. At the same time, he actively advocated the popularization of music education, firmly advocated the establishment of the National Conservatory of Music and opened a new site for the academy. He also drew up plans for popular symphony concerts and popular opera performances in Petersburg. He again taught the history of piano music, and since then organized a series of performances. Being attacked by the reactionary press, he realized that under the conditions of Tsarist Russia it was impossible to implement an extensive musical education program and left the Petersburg Conservatory again. This summer, he came to Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. A concert was held on August 12 to finance the construction of a local music school, and he soon moved to Dresden, Germany until his death in 1894. Previously, he often traveled around Europe as a pianist and band conductor to perform voluntary performances for charities. It is particularly worth mentioning that within two years before his death, he took as a “closet disciple” a Polish teenager who would later become one of the world’s outstanding pianists, his name was Josef Hoffmann (1876). —1957). He used to be the president of the Kursti Conservatory of Music in Philadelphia, USA, and has also published two books on piano performance techniques.

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