Due to the South Korean government’s strong support for cultural industries such as music, fashion, broadcasting, games and animation, the Korean wave culture represented by Korean pop music and Korean dramas has swept across Asia and even formed a huge international influence. It also led to the rapid development of Korean makeup. Today, whether it is Hallyu stars, or Korean music, Korean dramas, and Korean variety shows, they all have a certain influence on China. Therefore, many “Generation Z” young people in China are influenced by the Korean wave, and are full of interest in South Korea’s aesthetic industries such as make-up, cosmetics, beauty, and fashion. The formation of Hallyu did not happen overnight. The transformation of Korean modern makeup began in the period from 1910 to 1920. Before the end of World War II in 1945, Korea had formed a unique style of makeup. This process of change has played an important role in the formation of today’s Hallyu. Analyzing the trajectory and historical roots of this change has positive significance for us to rationally view this wave of Hallyu.
This article analyzes the development process and aesthetic characteristics of modern Korean women’s makeup, and explores the cultural trajectory behind the current Korean women’s makeup style and influence, in order to provide a reference for enriching Chinese makeup culture.
1. The origin of make-up
Make- consists of three parts: makeup, hairstyle and accessories, and is used to modify the body. Face makeup refers to the makeup and modification of the face, including thrush, fat, powder, makeup, oblique red, flower tint, etc.; hair style refers to all kinds of hairstyles that have been trimmed and designed; Various decorations are placed on the hair to stabilize the bun or beautify the decoration.
In the period of primitive tribes, people have already started to make up and wear accessories, which shows the important position of make-up in people’s life.
It is recorded in “Clothing Psychology-Fashion and Its Motivation Analysis”: “In many primitive tribes, women are used to adornment, but they don’t wear clothes. Only prostitutes wear clothes. Among the Saliras, it is more in line with the facts.” It can be seen that the purpose of decoration in primitive society is to survive and reproduce. In modern civilized society, makeup has become an art. As the artistic beauty of the new era, makeup has gradually attracted people’s attention. People beautify themselves through makeup, make up for defects, enhance self-confidence, and express their personality characteristics.
2. The evolution and characteristics of Korean makeup culture
The Korean peninsula was colonized by Japan for 35 years from 1910 to 1945. When World War II ended in 1945, the Korean peninsula was divided into North and South Korea. The decoration culture of the Korean peninsula before 1945 was the decoration culture of the whole peninsula including South Korea. The makeup style of Korean women today has changed from the makeup before the division of the Korean peninsula. For the convenience of description, this paper refers to the undivided Korean Peninsula as “Korean Peninsula” or “Korean Period”.
(1) Ranked decorations during the Joseon Dynasty
Around 1910, the decorations worn by women on the peninsula were still typical at the end of the Joseon Dynasty, when the Joseon Dynasty had just ended more than 200 years of feudal rule. During the Joseon Dynasty, the decoration classification was an important means to maintain the feudal rule. Decoration is an important way to show status and rank in feudal society, and it plays an important role in maintaining the ruling order of feudal society in feudal society. During the Joseon Dynasty, Confucianism was dominant, and the thinking was relatively conservative. Communication between men and women was strictly prohibited, and there was a strict class relationship. Therefore, women’s makeup is subdivided into specific standards according to different identities such as prostitutes, court ladies and folk women.
In terms of facial makeup, there is a big difference between the makeup of the royal family and the concubines in the Joseon Dynasty. The requirements for the main room are simple and elegant, diligent and thrifty housekeeping. The face makeup of the main room has a healthy, elegant and simple feeling on the whole. The complexion is healthy and slightly dewy. The blush is natural, not gaudy, and can enhance the complexion. The eyebrow makeup is slender and curved, arched, slightly wider, thicker, and angular than the eyebrow makeup of the concubine’s room. Simple cherry red lips, not overly modified. The concubines and prostitutes have more colorful makeup, skin like white jade, slender and slender curved eyebrows, cherry-colored cheeks and red lips.
The hairstyles of women in the Joseon Dynasty were relatively simple, but the hairstyles of unmarried girls and married women were quite different. Girls who have not left the pavilion wear a long braid, and tie colorful headbands at the root and tip of the braid. The bun is relatively simple, and they usually wear metal hairpins. Married women wear long braids behind their heads (that is, a woman with curly hair means she is married) for easy distinction. Affected by the hierarchical system, married women tend to pursue “beauty” in hairstyles, and take the beauty of the royal family as a fashion trend. “Ming History Foreign Biography” records: “Emperor Jiaqi was able to admire Chinese rituals, and bestowed gold seals, imperial orders, mianfu, nine chapters, Guiyu, Peiyu, concubine jewels, seven Zhai crowns, Xiapei, gold pendants, and scriptures and colored coins. Outside and inside.” By the end of the Joseon Dynasty, courtiers and women in the palace wore round gowns and garcons on some formal occasions. “Jialong” is a kind of fake bun, which has many styles. The technique of the bun and the precious hairpin on the topknot represent the rank and
In terms of cosmetics, the first “Pujiafen” loose powder was launched in 1916, which was deeply loved by people and became a hot commodity at that time.
(2) Women’s makeup in the era of change In
1920, the Korean peninsula introduced makeup technology and cosmetics from Europe for the first time, and women on the peninsula began to be gradually influenced by Western makeup styles. Early makeup techniques were dominated by French romantic women’s styles. Influenced by the trend of studying abroad in Japan in the later stage, the facial makeup has been slightly adjusted. Wu Yingzhu, a woman who returned from studying in Japan, opened the first beauty salon in Huaxing Department Store and introduced a new concept of makeup. The makeup with crescent-shaped eyebrows and lipstick only on the lower lip became popular. Cui Shengxi, a famous dancer on the Korean Peninsula, went to Japan to study in 1926 and appeared in the newspaper. In 1930, Cui Shengxi became the first advertising model on the Korean peninsula, a symbol of the representative of new women. Her dancing is very popular in Korea, Japan, China, America, and even Europe. As a new woman in the 1930s, the photos left by Cui Shengxi are the best reference for analyzing the characteristics of facial makeup in that era.
At that time, color photos were not popularized, so research could only be done from black and white photos, and it was difficult to study facial makeup. It can be found that the tail of the eyebrow is lower than the head of the eyebrow, and it is a slightly arched, slender one-word eyebrow. The shading from the brow to the nasal bone is continuous, and the eye sockets are deep. Makeup accentuates the edges and corners of the face, making the face structure more three-dimensional. The lips are European and American lip makeup, and the lip peaks form two peaks with obvious edges and clear outlines. Compared with the facial makeup on the Korean peninsula in 1910, the facial makeup at this time was closer to the trend of the West and changed a lot.
In terms of hair style, after the end of World War I, short hair became more popular among Western women after the 1920s, and it was also very popular in South Korea, China, Japan and other Asian countries. There are two main types of hairstyles for short hair, one is bob and the other is finger curls. In the 1920s, the most popular hairstyle on the Korean peninsula was finger curls. But in the 1930s, you can see the elegant neckline, and the rounded and full bob short hair is more popular, and the length of the hairstyle is generally below the ears and above the shoulders. As a hair accessory, hats are the epitome of the times. With the development of the times, the shape of western women’s hats has gradually been simplified. In the early 20th century, a bell-shaped hat with a simple shape appeared. As Western romanticism landed on the Korean peninsula, so too did the cloche craze on the Korean peninsula.
In terms of cosmetics, imported cosmetics are sought after by women. Compared with local cosmetics, imported cosmetics have better packaging and quality. Following the listing of “Parkjafen”, Seoul had its first department store in 1920, selling “Parkjafen” and imported cosmetics.
In the early days of the Joseon Dynasty, women pursued cheerful and lively images. From 1940 to 1945, the images of women were not only warm and feminine, but also strong. With the close communication between the Korean peninsula and the outside world and the large lineup of new women, short skirts, high heels, and parasols have gradually become fashionable items. People’s minds are constantly being liberated, they agree with and yearn for free love, and their makeup styles are not as tough as before. Big eyes, wide mouth, light makeup, and charming and strong long hair became the mainstream aesthetics of the new era on the Korean Peninsula at that time. The changes in makeup represented the liberation of people’s minds and the awakening of free will.
(3) “Korean-style” makeup that is popular in Asia The makeup of
contemporary Korean women is distinctive, giving people a feeling of tenderness, delicacy and harmony as a whole. The “Korean style” trend quickly blew up in Asia, causing women in many Asian countries to follow suit. Contemporary Korean makeup has gradually become an inherent aesthetic style.
On the face makeup, the overall makeup looks gentle, clean, delicate and perfect. Eye makeup, lip makeup, eyebrow makeup, etc. are in the same color system, so that the entire face color is coordinated and unified. The pursuit of light and natural base makeup, healthy and clear, supple and moist skin is the key to Korean makeup. The eye makeup is exquisite and smart, not deliberately heavy. The eyebrow shape should be mild and natural, without strong sense of lines. The lip color is naturally rosy and full, without deliberately outlining the lip contour.
In terms of hair style, the Korean hair style has an elegant and elegant feeling. Air bangs, figure-of-eight bangs, and side-parted bangs, which are popular in Korea, accentuate delicate facial contours and facial features. In terms of hair color, there are mainly black tea, brown, coffee and other colors. Under the sunlight, the gloss is strong, giving people an intellectual and elegant sense of delicacy. The ends of the perm are flipped out casually on both sides, loosely scattered
In terms of cosmetics, many brands of Korean cosmetics are popular and loved by women at home and abroad. Compared with cosmetics from European and American countries, Korean cosmetics are more suitable for Asian skin types, which is one of the important reasons why Korean cosmetics are so popular in Asia. The development of Korean women’s makeup has a reference and reference function for the development of Chinese women’s makeup, and has a certain positive impact on the development of Chinese women’s makeup.
3. Analysis of changes in Korean women’s makeup culture
The Korean peninsula has been a Japanese colony for 35 years, the social environment has undergone great changes, and the decorations have also changed. The change of adornment culture is closely related to the social atmosphere and policies at that time. On the one hand, the Korean peninsula was colonized by Japan and was forced to accept Japanese brainwashing education, and its living habits became more and more daily. A large number of Western commodities poured into Japan and its colonies, and at the same time, Western cultural thoughts also penetrated into the Korean Peninsula colonized by Japan. On the other hand, under the influence of Western culture and technology, many people studying abroad appeared in this stage. Western makeup culture has had a certain impact on Korean aesthetics, and Korean women’s makeup styles have naturally changed accordingly.
Korea’s beauty-related industries spread to China very early and have a certain influence on China’s makeup culture. After World War II, South Korea became one of the “Four Little Dragons” in Asia, and its foreign economic and cultural exchanges became more frequent. After China implemented reform and opening up, especially after the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea, the two sides have had close exchanges in education, economy and other fields, and non-governmental exchanges have become more frequent. Economically, the trade between the two countries has rapidly developed from small-scale imports to all-round trade cooperation. In terms of education, the makeup culture that appeared in Korean stars, film and television dramas, variety shows, etc. has a great influence on China’s makeup aesthetics. In recent years, there have been frequent exchanges between Chinese and Korean students studying abroad. Every year, a large number of foreign students go to Korea to study
makeup and so on.
Korean women’s makeup in different periods reflects the changes in Korean women’s aesthetic style. Through the analysis of the trajectory of Korean women’s makeup culture, we can see that after the First World War, the Korean Peninsula women’s makeup style changed a lot. It tended to be conservative in the early 20th century, and tended to be innovative in the 1920s. The differences in the makeup culture of the Korean Peninsula in these two eras reflect the different aesthetic tendencies of women in different eras. There are many reasons for the change of makeup style, such as the historical and cultural background of the Korean Peninsula, the penetration of Western culture, etc. Stimulated by external cultures, Korea’s makeup culture is gradually converging and globalizing. With the deepening of cultural exchanges between China and South Korea, “Korean Wave” is surging, but as long as it is properly used, “Korean Wave” can also have a positive impact on the development of Chinese cosmetic culture.