Recently, an influx of patients afflicted with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection has materialized in medical facilities across diverse locales, concurrently triggering heightened searches for Mycoplasma pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, an entity neither strictly bacterial nor viral, occupies a microorganism realm straddling the dimensions between bacteria and viruses. Mycoplasma pneumonia, or mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, denotes pulmonary inflammation induced by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Zhang Jie, the deputy chief nurse at the Xiaotangshan Diagnostic and Treatment Center of Beijing Children’s Hospital, expounded: “The typical trajectory of mycoplasma pneumonia spans approximately two weeks, with a generally favorable prognosis and a dearth of lingering sequelae. In rare instances, it may progress to a critical juncture, marked by pronounced symptoms of respiratory distress and failure.”
Zhang Jie underscored that Mycoplasma pneumoniae primarily disseminates via respiratory droplets, finding propagation grounds in close-knit familial and communal interactions, flourishing notably in congested environments such as kindergartens and schools. While this malady predominantly afflicts children aged 5 and older, it is not exclusive to this demographic, occasionally affecting those under 5. Mycoplasma pneumonia tends to manifest during the autumn and winter seasons, although sporadic occurrences arise in other temporal realms.
What manifestations characterize Mycoplasma pneumonia?
Per the “Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mycoplasma Pneumonia in Children,” pivotal clinical indicators encompass fever and cough, possibly accompanied by ancillary symptoms like cephalalgia, rhinorrhea, pharyngitis, thoracic discomfort, and otalgia. Notably, the fever tends toward moderate to high intensity, with persistent elevated temperatures signifying a grave prognosis. The cough, in its severity, may bear semblance to pertussis. It is noteworthy that certain children may exhibit wheezing symptoms, particularly prevalent among infants and young children.
How is Mycoplasma pneumonia diagnosed?
Diagnosing Mycoplasma pneumonia hinges on clinical and imaging manifestations, etiological considerations, and serological analyses. Early-stage manifestations on chest X-rays or chest CT scans include heightened density around bronchial vessels, bronchial wall thickening, and potential presence of ground glass shadows, “tree-in-bud sign,” thickened interlobular septa, grid shadows, etc. Substantiation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection necessitates antibody or nucleic acid testing.
Contrary to common cold misconceptions, Li Tong, chief physician of the Department of Infectious Diseases at Beijing You’an Hospital, has affirmed that Mycoplasma pneumonia symptoms are more severe and protracted than those of a common cold.
The opportune window for optimal Mycoplasma pneumonia treatment spans from 5 to 10 days post-fever onset. Beyond anti-Mycoplasma pneumonia measures, mild cases in children ought not to routinely involve systemic glucocorticoid treatment. Meanwhile, children with severe symptoms warrant comprehensive therapeutic strategies with varied focal points.
Li Tong has emphasized that, though not classified as a statutory infectious disease in the country, Mycoplasma pneumonia remains contagious. Vigilance against transmission becomes imperative upon manifestation of relevant symptoms.
Is treatment universally required for Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection?
Experts posit that Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection diverges from Mycoplasma pneumonia, and the necessity of treatment hinges on the infection site and symptomatic manifestations. Suspected upper respiratory tract infections attributable to Mycoplasma pneumoniae do not warrant antimicrobial intervention, as they often resolve spontaneously. Conversely, lower respiratory tract involvement may elicit symptoms like cough, and a fraction of those infected may progress to pneumonia, necessitating anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae treatment.
Regrettably, no vaccine currently exists against Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Zhang Jie advocates nourishing the body with foods that replenish Yin and moisturize the lungs post-infection. Parents should vigilantly monitor their children’s conditions, promptly seeking medical evaluation and intervention in the face of symptoms such as wheezing or respiratory distress, eschewing indiscriminate medication usage that might exacerbate the condition.