Music giant Glinka

  Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka was born into a family of manor owners in 1804. He became interested in folk music as a child. He learned violin and piano from serf musicians, and was often a guest at concerts of serf bands. Participate in playing violin, flute, etc. From 1818 to 1822, during his studies at the St. Petersburg noble boarding school, he was taught by the future Decembrist, the poet Chucherbeke, and the scholars and teachers with progressive ideas, such as the jurist Kunitsyn, the historian Arseny Yev, psychologist and artist Galic, these were all well-known figures who opposed serfdom at the time, so they had a great influence on the formation of the youth Glinka’s personality and worldview. Glinka’s civic consciousness and freedom-loving ideology became more and more mature. Shortly after the end of his studies in St. Petersburg, the Decembrist uprising failed in December 1825, and Glinka was also summoned for his association with “rebels”.
  During his studies in St. Petersburg, the artistic atmosphere there nurtured the young Glinka, which gave play to his musical talents. He frequently dabbled in the theatre, watching famous operas by Mozart, Rossini and French Conservatoire professor Cheroubini, learning the violin with Behm and the Irish pianist Field. The German pianist and composer Meyer was the main teacher of Glinka’s music theory study.
  In 1824, Glinka served in the General Office of the Transportation Committee. He did not care about this public office, but he tried his best to create music, and created many works of chamber music, piano music, and music for the band. His excellent early romances “The Poor Singer” and “Georgia Song” are the best indication that a talented composer has come to the fore.
  From 1830 to 1834, Glinka traveled to Italy, Austria, and Germany successively to learn about the musical life of major European cities, and met the French composer Berlioz, the German composer Mendelssohn, the Italian opera composer Bellini, and the Romantics. Opera master Donizetti, so during this period his works such as chamber music “Sad Trio”, “Sextet in E flat major”, romantic “Nights in Venice”, “Victor” are full of romantic passion and sincerity At the same time, he also developed a strong interest in Italian romantic opera, which led to the idea of ​​writing opera. Although the melody elements in Italian opera are colorful and admirable, Glinka’s heart is “… …I really couldn’t be an Italian, because my heart was in my country, so I had the idea to write an opera in the Russian style.” In the spring of 1834, Glinka returned to the country and immediately started his first opera, Ivan Sousa The creation of Ning.
  This opera fully embodies the creative principles of realism and popularism established in Russian literature in the 1830s, and the composer follows the principle of embodying the historical theme as a tragedy of the people, thus making the Russian people heroic and unyielding. The patriotic thought of Susanin is fully and touchingly expressed in the image of Susanin. It is worth pointing out that Susanin, the hero of the people, was created under the influence of the famous Twelve Party poet Rereyev’s “Meditation”. Even more interesting is that the play was first performed at the St. Petersburg Bolshoi Theatre in 1836 under the title “Dedication to the Tsar”. This is because the then emperor Nicholas I was very concerned about the new opera and appointed it.
  The successful premiere of “Ivan Susanin” has become a major event in Russian artistic life. Pushkin, Gogol, Zhukovsky, Odoyevsky and other well-known writers have extended their warm congratulations. However, the people’s nature in Glinka’s music was criticized by aristocratic audiences, who believed that the music of the play was “hillbilly music”. Fortunately, the lyrics and narrations written by the script writer and court poet Rosen were not lacking in the traditional monarch color. and finally obtain official recognition.
  The success of Glinka’s first opera opened up a new era of classics in Russian music art, and not only received due praise in Russia, but also highly praised by foreign critics, a French critic wrote: “This is not only a It’s an opera, but a national epic.”
  Glinka’s second opera, Ruslan and Lyudmila, was an imposing work, conceived in 1837 and premiered in 1842 at the St. There are many high-quality pieces, including the romantic songs composed according to Pushkin’s poems “I Remember That Wonderful Moment”, “Where is Our Rose”, “Silent Night and Wind”, as well as the sad song “Wandering”, and the vocal suite “Farewell to St. Petersburg”. “Wait.
  During this period, two major events occurred, which made Glinka in trouble in spirit and life. The first thing is that in 1837, the emperor appointed Glinka as the head of the court choir in order to reward Glinka for his creation. Unexpectedly, Nicholas I’s “emperor’s favor” became a heavy burden for the composer, because this mission set Glinka. This is unbearable for a servant-like court official; another matter is a divorce lawsuit with his wife Ivanova, who was married in 1835. It was a wrong marriage. Ivanova was illiterate, narrow-minded and incompatible with her husband’s musical interests, which had already disappointed Glinka, and now it has made it worse. This unhappy marriage cannot be maintained. Two things made Glinka extremely depressed. He was far away from relatives and friends and buried himself in the entertainment industry. Jealousy, lies and some trivial misfortunes made him deeply lonely and unable to extricate himself.
  After two years of hibernation, Glinka traveled to France and Spain successively, recorded Spanish melodies played by folk singers and guitarists, and observed Spanish folk music, which left a deep impression on him, so he wrote two works. Famous symphonic overtures: “Ala Horta”, “Memories of a Summer Night in Madrid” (now referred to as “Madrid Nights”). The four-year trip to Europe finally made the Russian music master famous in Europe and famous far and wide.
  After returning to China in 1847, he lived in his hometown for a period of time. In March of the following year, he lived in Warsaw, Poland. Glinka completed “Memories of Castile”. It is worth pointing out that at this time he created the famous “Kamarinskaya”. Fantasia, thus realizing the composer’s long-cherished wish to symphony Russian folk songs.
  Glinka’s later years, in the 1850s, coincided with the mature and prosperous period of realism in Russian literature and the development of democratization in art, which was also the eve of the reform of serfdom. These social factors had a great influence on his creative thinking, which led to In the early 1950s, the theme symphony “Dallas Briba” was conceived according to Gogol’s novella, and in 1855, he planned to write a description of folk The traditional opera “One Girl, Two Husbands”. It is a pity that the two masterpieces in the pipeline could not be realized. However, his creative ideas have been inherited and carried forward in the creation of many composers who contributed to the development of Russian national music formed in the 1960s.
  In the spring of the year before Glinka died, in order to study the ancient polyphonic music he was deeply interested in and establish a counterpoint with Russian characteristics, he disregarded his infirmity and traveled all the way to Berlin to study the Italian polyphonic master Pale carefully. Works by Strina, the British-German composer Handel, and the great German composer Bach. Unfortunately, in February of the following year, he died in Berlin.
  Glinka is not only a giant in the Russian music scene, but also an immortal music master in the world music scene. The reason why he can get such an honor is because he loves the people, deeply understands the people’s nature, and respects the people’s nature as his creative principle. Glinka believes that the people Sex is what Pushkin said, reflecting people’s character, worldview, way of thinking, and their emotions. He himself once said: “Let me be with the people all the time, and I want to share the joys and sorrows with the people.” He also said: “The people create music, and we artists just make it up.” Glinka’s this kind of The idea is concentrated on the heroic images of Susanin and Ruslan, the protagonists of the two operas. His most famous three fantasias “Aragon Horta”, “Madrid Night” and “Kamarinskaya” are the embodiment of his latter sentence, it can be said that the composer was inspired by folk songs , composed a representative work that depicts folk customs and reflects their thoughts and feelings.
  Glinka’s composition is extremely rich, covering almost all major musical genres: opera, dramatic music, symphony, piano music, romantic music, chamber music. His greatest contribution was the creation of Russian classical operas. His operas played a huge role in the development of Russian symphony. He was the first to create symphonies in the form of operas, and completely abandoned the principle of “mixing” in opera. The innovation can be said to be a challenge to all Russian operas at that time.
  In a word, Glinka’s creation has vigorously promoted the development of Russian national music culture, and deeply influenced the subsequent music giants. It can even be said that the music genres of various ethnic groups in the Soviet Union in the 20th century also grew and expanded under the influence of Glinka’s creative principles of realism.

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