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Fiery Brazilian Carnival

 Origin The earliest carnival in the
  
  world originated in the Middle Ages in Europe and is closely related to Christian Easter. Before Easter, there is a 40-day Lent period. During the fasting period, people abstain from eating meat and reflect on and repent to commemorate Jesus who suffered three days before Easter. During this period, everyone’s life is solemn and dull. So in the first week of the Lent, that is, in February, people will hold banquets, dances, parades and other indulgent and joyful activities, which is the prototype of the carnival. With the passage of time, the connotation of the carnival has gradually evolved from a traditional religious festival to an annual ordinary folk carnival, which has become an important festival for people to pursue happiness and freedom.
  In 1492 AD, Columbus discovered the New World in South America. Then the colonists from Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, the Netherlands and other countries successively entered South America to launch a colonial occupation movement. In 1500 AD, the Portuguese established a colonial stronghold in Brazil. In order to plunder the land, they massacred the indigenous Indians. Later, in order to solve the labor problem in economic activities, they sold a large number of black slaves from Africa to Brazil to work in plantations.
  At the same time, the colonists also brought European carnivals into South America, but due to the restrictions of the class front at that time, the festival celebrations were limited to the upper class of the colonists and slave owners. During the festival at that time, a few slaves who were close to the upper class were occasionally invited to participate in the activities, and they could exchange clothes with the slave owners. This short-term exchange of roles, equal gatherings, played a psychological role in comforting the slaves.
  In 1834, the British island of Trinidad on the Caribbean coast first announced the abolition of slavery, and in 1850 Brazil also announced the abolition of slavery. The liberated slaves from various countries in South America took to the streets to sing and dance to celebrate their new life as free men. South America, Brazil, and African slaves have the largest number of slaves, and later they held celebrations every year. The level of their joy, when the annual carnival came, got a rough, crazy, and indulgent vent. Since then, the carnival has officially become South America’s traditional festival. South American carnival was first introduced by European colonists, and later a large number of freed black slaves participated in the activities, constantly adding a lot of African elements. Therefore, South American carnival is regarded as the product of the integration of two traditional cultures of Europe and Africa.
  Brazil’s earliest carnival parade, without any musical rhythm and melody, just shouted and laughed wildly, and frantically threw objects at each other, or drank without restraint. One year at the carnival, a group of Portuguese brought big drums and a few small drums to the street and beat the deafening, attracting a large number of people to the street. From then on, people began to introduce a large number of musical instruments to participate in the carnival. Later, some groups in similar costumes took to the streets for carnival parades, including a small number of black groups. These black groups began to introduce African music and dance samba into the carnival.
  
  Development The addition of
  
  Brazilian black samba is an important milestone in the development of the Brazilian Carnival. Since then, the connotation of Brazilian carnival has undergone fundamental changes, completely different from the content of carnivals in any other country in the world, and has become a unique carnival featuring samba dance. Other countries in the world only hold carnivals in a certain city or region, but Brazil is the only country in the world that holds carnivals all over the country at the same time. Carnivals all over Brazil are quite distinctive and can attract a large number of local residents and tourists from all over the world, so Brazil has the reputation of “Carnival Capital”.
  The word samba (SAMBA) comes from the “Samba” in the African Angolan Kim Pengdu language, which means the navel. So this kind of samba dance was brought into Brazil by African slaves, and finally evolved into samba dance.
  The samba dance has a fast rhythm, strong rhythm, wild dance steps, trembling hips and twists, causing the muscles of the whole body to shake, which is dizzying. The women’s dance postures are still outstanding and attractive, Brazilian girls with fire-breathing bodies, dressed in bikinis with minimal concealment or half-naked, shaking violently in every part of their bodies, dancing solo or with male dancers passionately and wildly, while male dancers. The performers showed their strong muscles and wore only a pair of briefs. They frantically showed their hot dance moves, bringing the atmosphere of the audience to the extreme climax.
  Samba dance is also known as “circle dance”, because people form a circle when dancing, and a female dancer enters the circle first, indicating to choose a male dance partner with her belly, and the two dance wildly to the accompaniment of violent percussion music. song. After that, the first female dancer withdrew, and the male dancers who were invited to join the circle chose new female dancers to dance in the same way, and the cycle continued until everyone in the circle finished dancing.
  The Brazilian Carnival, held from late February to early March every year, is the grandest festival in Brazil and attracts hundreds of thousands of tourists from all over the world. The most eye-catching content is the parade performance of tens of thousands of samba school students, all of them dressed in gorgeous costumes, including many African elements such as masks, feather decoration, ancient weapons and so on. As early as a few months before the festival or even after the last carnival, Brazilians start to prepare the content of the next festival, which includes the creation of new themed samba movements, new costumes, new float decorations, new Formation of formation, etc.
  As the “Carnival Capital”, Brazil’s annual most distinctive carnival is held in Rio de Janeiro with a fancy dress parade. In the early days of the Carnival, Rio de Janeiro had no fixed venue for performances. The main streets of the city were all stages of samba performances. Brazilian samba girls twisted their bodies and danced wildly on the streets, sweat flowing down their brown-black bodies. , their dance steps seemed to be beating tirelessly, and the Brazilians around were equally engaged, twisting frantically with the rhythm… People crowded and danced wildly, and the mood was hotter than the summer weather at that time. People regardless of gender, age, skin color, class, hand in hand, shoulder to shoulder, enjoy this jubilant dance… Foreign tourists can’t help but join the carnival crowd. Some people get tired of jumping, so they run to a nearby river to take a bath, then come back and jump again.
  In 1984, the Rio de Janeiro Samba, designed by Brazil’s most famous architect, Nimel, was inaugurated. Since then, it has become the base of Brazilian carnival samba dance that attracts global attention every year. There is a wide passage in the middle of the samba dance hall, which can accommodate large-scale samba dance performance teams and large floats. Ordinary seat. With the performance in a fixed place, the samba school has the right to negotiate from now on, and negotiate the proportion of TV broadcast fees through the alliance and the media. There are dozens of samba schools in Rio de Janeiro. The school’s income mainly comes from the sale of CDs, TV broadcast commissions, parade tickets, sales of dance costumes and souvenirs, and sponsorship fees from local companies and enterprises.
  At the Carnival in Rio, the most attractive is the large-scale samba dance parade performance, with nearly 200,000 performers participating in the performance, all of whom are students from many samba schools across the country. The performance is basically carried out all night for 5 days, and each batch of teams has a large float parade at the same time. Since 1910, Brazilian musicians have created new songs and samba songs for the carnival every year. The performers, accompanied by samba instruments such as Brazilian drums, long drums, tambourines and sopranos, dressed in The colorful costumes representing the theme of the samba of the year, led by several male and female lead dancers, walked through the passage of nearly a thousand meters while dancing and singing. They sang the carnival song from beginning to end, carnival. Festival songs are short, easy to remember and catchy, and easy for people to sing over and over again. The large floats are decorated with various decorative materials, which are consistent with the theme style of the whole team. The onlookers can throw streamers and tidbits at the actors, and cheer on the performance team they support. Those who are interested can also go off the field in person and jump on the road with the team.
  Every year at the Carnival, a jury of famous Brazilian singing and dancing experts will evaluate the themed samba styles, costumes, dancers’ dances, floats, and team coordination of various programs and actors, and award winners with awards. For collective awards and individual awards, the final top 6 winning schools will hold another grand show within the specified time.
  Another important event of the Carnival is the free indoor masquerade balls held all night long all over the country, which are held in ordinary places or luxury hotels, allowing ordinary Brazilians and tourists to participate in and enjoy the happy atmosphere of carnival dancing. People can At the ball, the costumes are unconventional, and the dances from all over the world are displayed to the fullest. Everyone dances and drinks wildly, and revels all night. During the festival, the streets of Brazilian cities are redecorated to add to the carnival atmosphere.
  The Portuguese brought carnival, the African slaves brought samba. Watching samba is an essential part of Brazilian life, and samba has become synonymous with Brazilian culture. Brazilians say: “Without samba, there is no Brazilian carnival”.

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