A Survey of the Jewish Policy of the Holy See in the Middle Ages

In the late Middle Ages, the shortcomings of the Catholic Church were prominent, and various religious problems were prominent. The image and authority of the Church were widely questioned, and there were many calls for Catholic reform. From the mid-15th to the mid-16th centuries, spontaneous Catholic Church reform organizations continued to emerge, especially the revival of religious traditions became the source of strength and distinctive feature of the early Catholic reforms, with Christian humanists and Ordine Francescano as the mainstays. Representatives of the Catholic Church put forward new understandings and propositions about the Jews one after another. Some of these understandings and propositions are different from the Jewish policy of the Holy See since the Middle Ages. Affected by this, there were many disputes within the Catholic Church on how to treat Jews, which had a profound impact on Jews. This article intends to take a look at the Jewish policy of the Holy See in the Middle Ages and its influence from the debate between Christian humanists and the Franciscans about Jews and the choice of the Holy See at this time.

At the end of the 6th century, Pope Gregory I (reigned from 590 to 604) formulated the Holy See’s rules for Jews on the basis of the provisions and practices of Jewish law in Roman law such as Theodosius Code. basic policy. In short, on the premise that Jews enjoy legal religious status and are protected and tolerated, the influence of Jews on Christianity should be suppressed by measures such as prohibiting new synagogues, prohibiting Jews from intermarrying with Christians, and persuading Jews to voluntarily convert to Christianity. Forbid Jews from holding public office and other means, and restrict Jewish social activities. The policy affirms that Jews exist only to witness the final victory of Christianity,1 the idea of ​​Jews as “witnesses.” Christian theologians, represented by St. Augustine (354-430), believed that before the Last Judgment, the prophet Elijah would explain the law to the Jews to make them believe in the true Christ and love the Son (Jesus). ), believing that the heart of God was turned to the Son, and that the Jews had to be witnesses to the final victory of Christianity. 2 During the Middle Ages, although extreme speeches and actions against Jews often appeared in Catholic society, this policy has always been the basic understanding and official attitude of the Holy See towards Jews. The basic tenets of the policy were adhered to even at the height of papal power under Innocent III (1198-1216); Pope Alexander II (1061-1073) during the Crusades Gregory IX (reigned 1227-1241) also repeatedly condemned the violent activities of the Crusaders and the secular regime against the Jews, emphasizing that the Jews must be protected and their religious activities not interfered.

Since the 15th century, in response to the many drawbacks of the Catholic Church, many Christian humanists have traced their origins, sought to restore the original meaning of Christianity, established a pure church, and constructed an ideal Christian belief model. Therefore, they devoted themselves to the Bible, especially the Hebrew Bible. researching. The relaxed social environment in Italy at that time provided conditions for Christian humanists to communicate with Jewish scholars. Many Christian humanists learn Hebrew from Jewish scholars, and use Jewish scholars to understand and organize relevant Hebrew literature. Famous Jewish scholars Abravanel (1437-1508), Johannan Alemanno (1435-1504), Elijah del Medigo (1458-1593) and Joe Vanni (Giovanni, 1463-1494) and other Florentine humanist philosophers were closely related, and Johann Alemano was Giovanni’s Jewish teacher. 4 The Florentine humanist scholar Giannozzo Manetti (1396-1459) followed Jewish scholars to learn Hebrew and translated the “Old Testament Psalms” according to the Hebrew Bible. 5. Jimenez de Cisneros (1436-1517), bishop of the Spanish church and humanist scholar, paid attention to the role of Hebrew culture in the revival of Christianity, and presided over the establishment of a trilingual at the University of Alcala in Spain. The Academy, the Trilingual Academy of Hebrew, Greek and Latin, studies the original language texts of the Bible. In his dedication to Pope Leo X (reigned 1513-1521), Jiménez de Cisneros stated: “The biblical text contains a wealth of meanings which can only be derived from the Scriptures. After the first complete Hebrew Bible was published by the Jews in northern Italy in 1488, Jimenez de Cisneros organized the compilation and publication of the Compton Multilingual Bible in 1502 (Complatensian Polyglot), including four languages ​​including Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin, among which the Hebrew Bible was compiled by Jewish converts, which is also the first Greek book published by a Christian organization. Arabic Bible.

After the 1570s and 1480s, northern humanists also showed a keen interest in Hebrew studies. Erasmus (1466-1536), a Dutch humanist thinker and Christian theologian, strongly advocated returning to the source to study the Bible, with particular emphasis on the study of biblical languages ​​such as Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Hebrew teaching was widely promoted in Germany, the study of Hebrew continued to increase, and various Hebrew Bibles were published, such as Johannes Reuchlin (1455-1522), Conrad · Pelican (Conrad Pellican, 1478-1556), Sebastian Munster (Sebastian Munster, 1488-1552) represented by Hebrew Bible and Hebrew scholars. At this time, Christian Hebrew studies were also supported and even funded by the Catholic Church. Especially during the Renaissance Pope Period in the mid-15th to 16th centuries, from Pope Nicolaus V (reigned 1447-1455) to Julius III (reigned 1550-1555), they were particularly supportive of the Renaissance. , often funding Renaissance art and architecture, from which the period takes its name. Among them, Nicholas V strongly supported Gianozzo Manetti’s Bible translation, and in 1522 Pope Leo X approved the publication of the “Compton Multilingual Bible” and so on.

The rise and development of Christian Hebrew studies not only allowed Christian humanists to reflect on the Christian faith through the revival of the Bible, but also published a large number of works in Hebrew, including language (grammar, word dictionary), Bible and Bible commentary etc., enriched the cultural content of the Christian Renaissance, and some Christian scholars realized the value of Hebrew culture by learning Hebrew, studying Jewish writings, and communicating with Jewish scholars, and to a certain extent dispelled prejudice against Jews and Misunderstanding, more understanding and respect for Jews, and even the idea of ​​religious tolerance. For example, Erasmus believed that the number and influence of Jews would not pose a threat to Christianity at all, and that Jews should not be forced to convert to Christianity. Christian missionary activities had little effect on Jews, and he condemned Spain’s deportation of Jews, saying: “I There is a temperament that I can love even a Jew, provided he is polite and kind, and does not blaspheme Christ before me.” Johannes Reuchlin also frequently defended Jews and their culture, arguing that Jewish culture And the classics are not meaningless to Christianity, and they should be protected and advocated for tolerance and respect for the Jews.

In the middle of the 15th and 16th centuries, not only were Christian humanist scholars more tolerant towards Jews, especially Jewish scholars, but Italian Jews indeed lived in a relatively peaceful and superior environment. From the 14th to the 15th century, the number of Jews in Italy, especially in Rome, Genoa, Venice, Mantua, Perugia and other places in the north-central region continued to increase. At the beginning of the 15th century, there were more than 200 Jewish communities. In 1492, a large number of Spanish Jews migrated to north-central Italy due to deportation, and a large number of German Ashkenazic Jews also migrated to north-eastern Italy for trade. These Jews actively participated in Italian economic and social life, Jewish loan sharks were very common, and Jewish doctors were widely accepted. In the mid-15th century, Jews and Christians were almost indistinguishable across Italy. They spoke the same language and wore the same clothes. Some Jews even enjoyed citizenship and were appointed to public offices; Jews were scattered throughout Italy and lived next to Christians , lives in a similar house. Although the Synod of Lavour, convened near Toulouse, France in 1348, tried to limit Jewish influence over Christians by prohibiting Christians from participating in Jewish funerals, weddings and circumcision, this did not affect Italian Jews. restrictions have had little effect. In the 15th century, Christians in Ferrara, Palermo and other places in Italy still generally participated in Jewish circumcision and other activities. In the 16th century, Christians in Cremona and other places still participated in Jewish weddings. 8 Thus, although Jews were occasionally harassed at this time, they were generally integrated into Italian urban life.

The situation of Italian Jews in the 15th century was alerted and taken seriously by Catholic religious orders such as the Dominican Order and the Franciscan Order. 1 In order to stop the influence of Jews on Christians, St. Domenico advocates putting pressure on Jews and banning Jewish books and works, but also puts forward the concept of Caritas, advocates that restrictions on Jews should be limited, and Jews should be treated fairly, Especially protect Jews who do not pose a threat to Christians. In contrast, the Franciscans began to preach harsher Jewish policies, arguing that Jews had become more dangerous and corrupt, and that it was time for Christian society to get rid of Jews,3 especially St. Bernardine of Siena, Italy (S. . Bernardino of Siena, 1380-1444), St. James of March (S. James of March, 1391-1476) and St. John of Capistrano (S. John of Capistrano, 1386-1456) Three Saints Apprentices are represented.

The sermon of St. Bernardine broke the traditional practice of Christian missionaries preaching in religious ceremonies, and instead preached directly to the public. His sermons traveled all over Italy, and the content of sermons is easy to understand, known as “a masterpiece of Italian spoken language” , these sermons contributed to the Reformation revival of Catholicism in the early 15th century. St. Bernardine strongly criticized activities such as immorality, homosexuality, superstition and witchcraft in society, especially focusing on economic activities. He was an early scholastic theologian who systematically focused on economic issues. He strongly opposed Jewish usury, believing that usury concentrated money. In the hands of a few, loan sharks were murderers of the poor, and therefore advocated that Christians could not have any contact with Jews, that Jews had to wear clothing with specific markings so that Christians could hide, and that they were in Padua in person (Padua, 1430). ), Perugia (1432), Florence and Siena (1439) and other places to implement Jewish wear symbols. At the same time, San Franciscans Giacomo della Marca (Giacomo della Marca, 1393-1476), Cherubino da Spoleto (Cherubino da Spoleto, 1414-1484), etc. Ancona, Assisi and other places implemented Jewish wear symbols.

Under pressure from the Franciscan friars, Rome, Sicily, Pisa, and especially northern Italy began requiring Jews to wear clothing with special symbols. In Rome and parts of southern Italy, Jews are required to wear a red coat, a red tunic for men and a red burqa for women; in Pisa, Jews are required to wear an O-shaped logo on the chest; and in some regions, Jewish women wear a yellow veil that falls from the earlobes earrings. Places such as Viterbo even require Jews to wear prostitutes’ clothing to humiliate Jews. As early as 1313, Viterbo established an institution that envisaged the use of penitent prostitutes to help convert Jews to Christianity, and some monks thus linked prostitutes with Jews. In 1450, Viterbo Jews were required to dress in red cloth circles, and women covered their heads with a yellow veil. If Jewish women were found not dressed in this way, the first person to see them could strip them naked, that is, to demand that Jews be treated the same way as prostitutes, and the Milan regulations could also do the same for Jewish men. In 1494, the Brescia region declared during the expulsion of Jews: “Despite the Catholic Church’s inclination to protect Jews, Jews cannot be tolerated in Brescia, Jews are open prostitutes; prostitutes can only live in brothels because their Filth. Even so, Jews should live in foul-smelling places, separated from Christians.”

As a result, Jewish women were often seen as prostitutes, and at one point in Rome they were required to wear short red skirts—the usual dress worn by prostitutes, the hallmark of prostitutes. In 1499, Jewish men in Recanati were required to wear yellow clothing and Jewish women wore yellow linen turbans, which were worn by prostitutes in Pisa in the 14th century and Bologna in the 16th century.

As early as the 13th century, the church raised the issue of Jews wearing specific clothing: in 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council of Catholicism required Jews to wear specific clothing to distinguish them from Christians. It is worth noting that Jews are required to wear specific clothing at this time, mainly to limit the sexual intercourse between Christians, Jews and Muslims. Pope Innocent III said at the Lateran Council: “In some areas, Jews, Muslims and Christians Christians have become indistinguishable, leading to sexual relations between Christians and Jews and Muslims. In order to prevent some people from using this as an excuse to engage in such hateful sexual intercourse, we order Jews and Muslims in Christian lands to dress differently from Christians. clothing.” However, this rule was hardly enforced, and in 1219 Ferdinand, king of Castile (reigned 1217-1252), wrote to the bishop of Toledo that it was compulsory to wear certain Clothing will cause many Jews to flee to the Moorish areas, resulting in a sharp drop in the royal family’s financial revenue, and this requirement needs to be abolished. This motion was mentioned again at the Ravenna guild in 1317, but only Pisa (1322), Rome (1360) and other places required Jews to dress in this way. The former required Jews to wear an O-shaped red emblem on the chest. The latter requires Jewish men to wear red robes and women to wear kilts, a policy not seen elsewhere. In contrast, St. Bernardine and others advocated that Jews wear specific marked clothing, mainly to prohibit any contact between Jews and Christians, fearing that Jews would “contaminate” Christians, and aimed at the total exclusion of Jews in Christian society. The claims of the Holy See in the 13th century had completely different ideological connotations.

At the same time, St. Bernardine severely criticized the mixing of Jews and Christians. In 1423, he emphasized that this phenomenon had endangered the souls of Christians in his preaching activities in Padua, saying: “There are many Jews in Padua, I think State several facts: first, if you eat with them, you commit an important sin; just as they forbade eating with us, we cannot eat with them; second, it is strictly forbidden for the sick to seek treatment from the Jews, which is also sin; third, it is forbidden to share a bathroom with the Jews.” As early as 638, the Sixth Catholic Sanhedrin of Toledo stipulated that Christians should not share meals and baths with Jews, and should not accept Jewish doctors and medicines. and

Jews lived with them or were expelled from the church, but these regulations were mostly formal. The threatening sermons of Franciscan monks in the 15th century pushed these regulations into effect. In 1472, when St. Bernardine opposed Jewish usury in Orvieto, Italy, he even advocated the strictest policy against Jews, completely separating Jews from Christians, and called for the expulsion of Jews.

St. Bernardine had a profound influence on the Jewish policy of the Franciscan order in the 15th century, and his followers were numerous, and St. James was his faithful follower and regarded him as a teacher. In 1416, St. James became a monk in Portiuncula, Italy. He began to preach in 1422. He preached for more than 40 years. He was a typical representative of the asceticism, poverty and holiness of the Franciscan monks. He advocated strictness towards the Jews. policy, which imposes heavy penalties on Jewish religious blasphemy and prohibits any contact between Christians and Jews.

Not only that, the name of St. Bernardine has become the symbol and symbol of the Franciscan order, and Bernardino de Feltre (Bernardino de Feltre, 1439-1494) and Bernardino of Busti appeared successively in Italy. Ding (Bernardino de Busti, 1450-1513) and so on. They inherited the Jewish claim of St. Bernardine, arguing that Jewish usury and blasphemous remarks in the Talmud made Jews feel superior to Christians and that Christians were not obliged to act with love and benevolence. Heart-to-heart with Jews, especially Bernardine of Feltre, who believed that Jewish corruption would pollute Christians, advocated the expulsion of all Jews from Italy. His sermons in Umbria in the mid-15th century led to a large number of Jews to convert to Christianity in horror; his fervent sermons in Trento in 1475 led to violent anti-Semitism in the city Movement, a large number of Jews accused of “blood sacrifice” (Blood Libel)

Accused – Blood sacrifice slander was a medieval Christian charge against Jews for killing Christian boys during Passover in order to obtain the blood needed to make Passover unleavened bread and other ceremonies. The accusation of libel of Jewish blood sacrifices first emerged in 1171 in Blois, France, where Jews were accused of killing a Christian child on Passover and throwing the body into the Loire; the charge had been raised as early as 1247 Pope Innoncent IV (reigned 1243-1254) denied it, confirming that it was a false accusation against the Jews, a decision endorsed by subsequent popes. In this sermon, 17 Trento Jews were executed; after that, Trento began a 300-year-old deportation campaign.

St. John and St. Bernardine were contemporaries, and they preached in different styles. St. John was often put into practice in his sermons and was good at writing. He wrote a lot of preaching doctrine. At the age of 70 (1456), he led the Crusaders to resist the invasion of the Ottoman Empire, so he was called “the Soldier Saint” (the Soldier Saint). . He also advocated a strict policy against the Jews. In 1453, he severely criticized the Jews in his sermon in Breslau, Poland, and proposed to completely separate the Jews from the Christians and incite violence against the Jews. disaster”. From 1451 to 1453, St. John’s fanatical preaching activities led to the expulsion of Jews from some areas of southern Germany, and a large number of Jews were burned at the stake in Silesia, Bohemian, Wroclaw and other places die.

Therefore, in the middle of the 15th and 16th centuries, Christian humanists and the Franciscans formed two completely different understandings of the Jews. The attitude of Christian humanists towards the Jews and their classics culture to a certain extent prompted the Christian world to change the understanding of the Jews and promote the tolerance of the Jews. However, St. Francis’s views on Jews became more and more severe, and even deviated from the Jewish policy of the Holy See since the Middle Ages. The discrimination, persecution, and even deportation suffered by Jews across Italy in the 15th century can be traced back to St. Francis. The influence of the missionary activities of the monks.

Regarding the relationship between early Christianity and the Jews, Paul said in “1 Corinthians” (5:12-13): “What do I have to do to judge those who are outside the church, and do you judge those who are in the church? As for the outsiders, who are judged by God, drive the wicked out of your midst.” 6 At the same time, in Galatians (5:1-10) it says:

Christ has set us free from the yoke of slavery, and I Paul tell you that if you are circumcised, Christ is of no use to you. Again I point to the circumcision (Jew) that he is a debt to the law… In Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision works, but faith which works in love… …”A little leaven leaves the whole dough up”, I believe in the Lord that you will have no other heart, but whoever disturbs you will bear his guilt.

“A little leaven makes the whole dough rise,” showing Paul’s concern that the Jews would influence others to accept Christianity and the spread of the Christian faith. John Chrysostom (349-407), the early godfather and archbishop of Constantinople, was famous for his excellent speech and eloquence and strict asceticism, and later generations called him “Chrysostom”. During his evangelistic activities, in order to avoid Jewish influence and contamination of Christianity, St. John strongly insisted that Christians stay away from Jews, stay away from synagogues, and avoid any contact with Jews.

Influenced by Paul and the early Christian scholars, some medieval Christian scholars believed that Jews in Christian society should be expelled. In 1292, Fra Bartolomeo (1472-1517), a Dominican friar and inquisitor of the Inquisition, attempted to deport Jews from Aquila, Italy; · Ponte (Oldradus de Ponte,? – 1335) has proposed to expel the Jews from Christian society. In the 15th century, the Franciscans, represented by St. Bernardine, were obviously influenced by this kind of thinking and tradition. They were afraid of interacting with Jews and no longer envisaged converting to Jews. put into practice in parts of Italy.

However, with regard to the survival of Jews in Catholic society, the Holy See in the Middle Ages always recognized the right of Jews to exist legally in Christian society, and the thought and behavior of expelling Jews was never recognized, and expulsion activities initiated by the Catholic Church were also very rare. Regarding the thought and behavior of expelling Jews, the famous ecclesiologists Huguccio (?—1210) and Hostiensis (1200—1271) in the Middle Ages pointed out that the Catholic Church could not expel Jews in theory, because Jews did not Belonging to the church organization, the church has no right to expel, but when Jews make mistakes, the church can punish and even execute Jews. The Fourth Lateran Sanhedrin in 1215 stipulated that if the Jews carried out excessive usury activities against Christians, they would be prohibited from any contact with Christians. Later, Raymond (1175-1275), a famous canon jurist in Penaforte, Spain, proposed that the Catholic Church could impose indirect punishment on Jews by prohibiting Christians from communicating and contacting Jews. This punishment gradually evolved into the Catholic Church’s “expulsion” by threatening to expel Christians who had contact with Jews, prohibiting any contact between Jews and Christians, and “separating” Jews from Christians (or Christian groups). Jewish target. This policy was widely used by medieval popes. In 1212, when Innocent III dealt with a Jew who had offended the priest, he banned all Christians from dealing with him and threatened to excommunicate those who did not obey. Therefore, the idea of ​​expelling Jews by Franciscans such as St. Bernardine obviously deviates from the traditional policy of the Holy See, and St. Bernardine is therefore called the most important Christian anti-Semitist in history.

At the same time, the 15th-century Franciscans inciting violence against Jews and forcing Jews to convert to Christianity also violated the traditional policy of the Catholic Church. The Christian Church believes that Jewish conversion will confirm the final victory of Christianity. Most Jewish conversions will pave the way for the second coming of Christ. Therefore, it is hoped that more Jews will convert to Christianity, but they must be attracted to voluntarily convert by mild methods. Any violence and coercion, including forcing Jews to listen to fanatical sermons and intimidation, was a principle repeatedly emphasized by many medieval popes. Although a few popes have violated this principle in history, in 418 Pope Zosimus (reigned 417-418) agreed with Bishop Minorca to force the conversion of Jews, but in general the Pope does not advocate forcing Jews. Converted, and often condemned secular monarchs for forcing Jewish conversions. During the Crusades, Pope Urban II (reigned 1088-1099) refused to force Jews to convert, and in 1098 opposed Pope Clement III (reigned 1080-1100) condemned the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (reigned 1056-1105), and reintroduced Jewish converts to Judaism.

In the 15th century, the Catholic forces, represented by the Franciscans, set off the ethos of expelling Jews and violently forcing Jews to convert, which made the Jewish problem a rampant. Influenced by traditional canon law and Roman law, some church people believe that the basic policy of protecting Jews cannot be easily abandoned, and that if Jews commit wrongdoing, they must be severely punished; Severe punishment included the expulsion of Jews. As a result, the Holy See began to face the question of whether to continue traditional Jewish policies.

As early as the early 15th century, the anti-pope Benedict XIII (reigned 1394-1423) and other popes were caught up in the controversy over Jewish policy, but Benedict XIII finally insisted that “just treat the Jews in a way that promotes conversion by pious admonitions and sweet words, rather than violence, which would have the opposite effect.” Although the Franciscans and other ecclesiastical forces agitated to change the traditional Jewish policy, progress was slow. The Ecumenical Council of Constance held in 1414 still refused to change the policy toward the Jews, and only demanded the strict implementation of the traditional policy; the Ecumenical Council of Basel reiterated this point . Pope Martin V (reigned 1417-1431) also strongly opposed the harassment of Jews by the Franciscans, segregating Jews from Christians, prohibiting Jews from accepting orders from monks, and issuing decrees that Jews must enjoy canon law The rights stipulated, these rights must be stipulated by strict laws, other privileges and restrictions are not allowed. In 1422, Pope Martin V warned against inflammatory remarks by Franciscan friars that they threatened the Jews, who would have given up the idea of ​​conversion from those who could have converted through moderate preaching, and that the Jews would Convert to Christianity in the distant future. In 1427, when the Franciscan Giacomo della Marca preached in Recanati, Italy, calling on Jews to wear distinctive clothing to separate them from Christians, the local councillors presented Pope Martin V strictly prohibited Jews from wearing specific clothing; in the same year, Giacomo della Marca required Ancona Jews to wear clothing with specific logos and Jewish women to wear earrings, which was also condemned by Pope Martin V, But the Jews were forced to accept it with the support of the local rulers.

The most representative pope at this time was Sixtus IV (1471-1484). Si Dao IV joined the Franciscan order in his early years and was elected Pope in 1471, so he was called the Pope of the Franciscan Order. With regard to the Jewish question, Si Dao IV faced double pressure from Franciscans and religious radicals, as well as Christian humanists and traditional Catholic policies, such as St. Domenico de’ Giudice Frequent disputes with Italian humanist Platina (1421-1481) over Jewish policy, sometimes even attacking each other in crude language.

The death of Simon, a Christian boy in Trento on Easter 1475, put Sidou IV in a whirlpool. Since Simon died near the Jewish settlement of Trento, influenced by the fervent sermons of Bernardine, a Franciscan of Feltre, the local church and Christians insisted that Simon was used as a blood sacrifice by the Jews. Si Dao IV sent an envoy to Trento to oversee the trial of the local bishop against the groundless trials of the Jews, but 15 Jews were still executed. With the rapid spread of Simon’s deeds, especially under the desperate advocacy of the Franciscans, Hinderbach, the local bishop of Trento, tried to canonize Simon; Rota GF Pavini ) The friars called the Jews a permanent danger, that the Jews in the Trento case were real “slaves” (Servi), to be deprived of normal legal protection, and called for a way of prohibiting social interaction to prevent Jews from contaminating Christians, That is, prohibiting Jews from sharing meals and contact with Christians, especially expressing their disgust for usury activities and calling for a ban. Under this pressure, Si Dao IV finally declared that the trial was in line with the procedure, and said that any Jews who threatened the security of Christianity would not be protected, but at the same time prohibited the canonization of Simon, and firmly opposed Rota Pavigny’s claim. Reiterates its opposition to any anti-Semitic behavior arising from any innocent interrogation, prohibits arbitrary possession of Jewish property, interferes with Jewish religious activities, and specifically proposes that Jewish usury activities are acceptable – in fact, before 1682, the Pope, out of economic interests, Has not opposed Jewish usury, 3 and issued medical licenses to Jews. Therefore, on the whole, Pope Sido IV adopted a moderate approach to the Trento incident in 1475, that is to seek a balance in traditional policies, and did not accept the extreme views of the Franciscans, and basically continued traditional policy. Although Si Dao IV was a Franciscan, he did not have a “San Franciscan Pope” as the San Franciscans envisioned.

In comparison, at the end of the 15th century, the Pope’s attitude towards the forced conversion and expulsion of Jews in Spain and Portugal was ambiguous, or at least there was no clear objection. For example, in 1497 Pope Alexander VI (reigned 1492-1503) did not expressly object to the treatment of Jewish children (4-14 years old) by King Manuel I of Portugal (reigned 1495-1521). Forced conversion, which Manuel I envisaged to force their parents to convert to Christianity. In the Middle Ages, some canon jurists believed that if Jews converted to Christianity, their children should also convert, and even actively forced Jewish children to convert. The Fourth Sanhedrin of Toledo in 633 had stipulated that Jewish children should not live with their parents, but should live in a monastery or be brought up by Christians, so that they could receive the true faith; Meaux-Paris, 845-846 ) Church councils also so stipulate. However, this move was opposed because it did not conform to the principle of voluntary conversion advocated by the Catholic Church, and because if all Jews were converted, they would not be witnesses to the Second Coming of Jesus. Thus, Manuel I’s forced conversion of Jewish children to Christianity was a clear departure from traditional Catholic policy.

However, in the 15th century, the Holy See adhered to the traditional Jewish policy and responded to the Jewish policy of the Franciscan order, which was recognized and followed by the vast majority of popes at that time. Between 1503 and 1555, six relatively tolerant Renaissance Popes Julius II (Julius II, reigned 1503-1513), Leo X, and Hadrian VI (Adrian VI, reigned 1522-1523) , Clement VII (Clement VII, reigned 1523-1534), Paul III (Paul III, reigned 1534-1549), Julius III, etc. also opposed the expulsion of Jews. In 1510, Julius II also warned the Franciscans as harshly as Martin V. In 1513, the Camaldulese monks Paulus Justiniani and Petrus Quirini advised Leo X to issue a decree against those who did not want to convert. The Jews imposed stricter policies, including prohibiting usury and business activities, prohibiting living around Christians, wearing marked clothing, completely isolating Jews from Christians, and allowing Jews to live in Christ if they did not convert after many years. Disappeared among the disciples; Leo X not only vehemently refused, but personally hired Jewish doctors and granted them university positions. Jewish scholar Cecil Roth even claimed that no ruler in Italian history treated Jews as kindly as the popes of the Renaissance, especially Leo X and Clement VII of the Medici family. , they were enlightened beyond that era, and were extremely tolerant, and even Jewish academic achievement was an integral part of the cultural life for which they meditated.

In general, in the mid-15th and 16th centuries, under the disputes between Christian humanist scholars calling for respect for the Jewish people and the St. Franciscans’ fierce anti-Semitic ideology, especially the latter’s fanatical anti-Semitic activities, the Holy See sought traditional policy. A balance, basically continuing the traditional Jewish policy of the Catholic Church, the Jewish policy of the Holy See in the Middle Ages still exerted its effectiveness and influence. Before the mid-16th century, although canon jurists, monks, and even Catholics such as bishops, priests, and Catholic secular rulers had proposed various anti-Semitic policies, including blood sacrifice, slander, expulsion, forced conversion, and even killing, etc. The basic principle of Jewish policy, that is, the Jewish policy established by Pope Gregory I, has not changed, although there are sometimes discrepancies in the implementation process, so at this time Catholic Antisemitism is mainly based on individual Catholics or Represented by groups, the Holy See, as the defender of Gregory I’s Jewish policy, ensured the bottom line of Catholic society’s policy toward Jews.

However, it should be noted that the more severe advocacy against Jews, represented by the Franciscan Church, is rampant. Especially at this time, when the Catholic Reformation calls for the establishment of a pure church and the consolidation of the foundation of the Catholic faith, the situation of the Jews in the Catholic society is even more difficult. . After the mid-16th century, in order to meet the challenges brought by the rise of Protestantism and to demonstrate the superiority of Catholicism, Jews became the object of attention of the Holy See, that is, under the influence of doomsdayism, Jews immediately converted to Christianity to prove the revival of Catholicism, and the Holy See forced Jews to Conversion replaced voluntary conversion, and finally broke through the basic principles of the Jewish policy of the Holy See in the Middle Ages and became the vanguard of Catholic anti-Semitism.

error: Content is protected !!